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HIST 1302 UNIT 1 QUIZ_TERM
Terms in this set (95)
What was the intent of the Treaty of Fort Laramie?
To preserve designated areas of the Plains for Indian habitation
Native American tribes used buffalo chips as
Why did the cattle industry experience tremendous growth in the late nineteenth century?
The invention of the refrigerated railroad car allowed for meat to be shipped to eastern consumers without spoiling
In what state did women win the right to vote and run for office in local elections in 1887?
Efforts to enforce segregation among cowboys was impeded by
the need for cooperation and mutual support to survive life on the open range
Californios were granted U.S. citizenship under the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Nineteenth-century critics of Mormon polygamy compared the practice to
During the late 1860s, the majority of cowboys were
Confederate veterans of the Civil War
In what year was gold discovered in California?
How did corn farmers respond to falling prices during the 1880s and 1890s?
They used corn for hog feed to reduce the supply
African American cavalrymen who fought in the West against the Indians in the 1870s and 1880s and served with distinction.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 act that banned Chinese immigration into the United States and prohibited those Chinese already in the country from becoming naturalized American citizens.
Massive silver deposit discovered in the Sierra Nevada in the late 1850s.
1887 act that ended federal recognition of tribal sovereignty and divided Indian land into 160-acre parcels to be distributed to Indian heads of household. The act dramatically reduced the amount of Indian-controlled land and undermined Indian social and cultural institutions.
Religious ritual performed by the Paiute Indians in the late nineteenth century. Following a vision he received in 1888, the prophet Wovoka believed that performing the Ghost Dance would cause whites to disappear and allow Indians to regain control of their lands.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
1876 battle in the Montana Territory in which Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer and his troops were massacred by Lakota Sioux.
Semiarid territory in central North America.
A railroad linking the East and West Coasts of North America. Completed in 1869, the transcontinental railroad facilitated the flow of migrants and the development of economic connections between the West and the East.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
1851 treaty that sought to confine tribes on the northern plains to designated areas in an attempt to keep white settlers from encroaching on their land. In 1868, the second Treaty of Fort Laramie gave northern tribes control over the "Great Reservation" in parts of present-day Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
Spanish and Mexican residents of California. Before the nineteenth century, Californios made up California's economic and political elite. Their position, however, deteriorated after the conclusion of the Mexican-American War in 1848.
1862 act that established procedures for distributing 160-acre lots to western settlers, on condition that they develop and farm their land, as an incentive for western migration.
Cattle drive from the grazing lands of Texas to rail depots in Kansas. Once in Kansas, the cattle were shipped eastward to slaughterhouses in Chicago.
Religious sect that migrated to Utah to escape religious persecution; also known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
The popularity of Horatio Alger's dime novels can be attributed to their message that
wealth could be attained through hard work and individual initiative.
In determining how to make factory employees more productive, efficiency experts were inspired by the workings of
Frederick W. Taylor
The rise of black-run schools, churches, and businesses in the South was an unintended consequence of
Jim Crow laws.
The passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act reflected Congress's desire to
limit, but not eliminate, the ability of big business to dominate the economy.
What was the consequence of the establishment of department stores for the middle-class housewife in the late nineteenth century?
Having access to a constantly changing array of consumer goods increased her workload and stress level.
Which of the following characterizes the philosophy of Herbert Spencer?
Helping the poor ultimately hurts society as a whole.
Who was the founder of the Standard Oil Company?
John D. Rockefeller
During the Gilded Age, wealthy businessmen believed that the federal government protected their right to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" when it
refrained from regulating the economy.
Advocates of the free-market economy argued that the key to success was
A national market for raw materials and finished goods could not have developed without the
standardization of railroads.
"The Gospel of Wealth"
1889 essay by Andrew Carnegie in which he argued that the rich should act as stewards of the wealth they earned, using their surplus income for the benefit of the community.
A form of business ownership in which the liability of shareholders in a company is limited to their individual investments. The formation of corporations in the late nineteenth century greatly stimulated investment in industry.
French for "let things alone." Advocates of laissez-faire believed that the marketplace should be left to regulate itself, allowing individuals to pursue their own self-interest without any government restraint or hindrance.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 act that outlawed monopolies that prevented free competition in interstate commerce.
Term coined by Mark Twain and Samuel Dudley Warner to describe the late nineteenth century. The term referred to the opulent and often ostentatious lifestyles of the era's superrich.
Late-nineteenth-century statutes that established legally defined racial segregation in the South. Jim Crow legislation helped ensure the social and economic inferiority of southern blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the legality of Jim Crow legislation. The Court ruled that as long as states provided "equal but separate" facilities for whites and blacks, Jim Crow laws did not violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Managerial, technical, and clerical workers. The creation of large numbers of white-collar jobs in the late nineteenth century was the key factor in the expansion of the American middle class.
The system used by southern governments to furnish mainly African American prison labor to plantation owners and industrialists to raise revenue for the states. In practice, convict labor replaced slavery as the means of providing a forced labor supply.
the ownership of as many firms as possible in a given industry by a single owner. John D. Rockefeller pursued a strategy of horizontal integration when he bought up rival oil refineries.
The control of all elements in a supply chain by a single firm. For example, Andrew Carnegie, a vertically integrated steel producer, sought to own suppliers of all the raw materials used in steel production.
Term popularized by newspaper editor Henry Grady, a proponent of the modernization of the southern economy. Grady believed that industrial development would lead to the emergence of a "New South."
William H. Vanderbilt's opposition to labor unions rested on the belief that unions
were unnecessary because employers and workers shared the same interests.
The bankruptcy of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was responsible for the
collapse of the stock market.
Wealthy Americans opposed Cleveland's efforts to
introduce a federal income tax.
"Coxey's Army" consisted of some 500
Married women frequently did "piecework" in their homes because
it enabled them to earn income without neglecting family responsibilities.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, the ideas of Karl Marx achieved significant popularity among
The majority of unskilled factory workers during this period were
Jazz music was a product of the diverse musical traditions found in
The first efforts to organize farmers were meant to help them
overcome loneliness and isolation.
A key contributor to Republican victory in the 1896 election was the
support of industrial workers and immigrants.
529 - workers with no skill, trade, or expertise
529 - workers with skill, trade, or expertise
532 - groups of workers seeking rights and benefits from their employers throughtheir collective efforts
532 - negotiations between employers and labor unions
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
532 - Initiated most extensive and successful campaign to unite workers founded by Uriah Stephens in 1869
533 - Site of 1886 rally and violence led by German-born activist August Spies as a result at the Harvester plant in Chicago, where police killed two strikers. In the aftermath of the events, the union movement in US declined temporarily.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
534 - trade union federation founded in 1886. Led b Samuel Gompers. Sought to organize skilled workers into trade-specific unions.
534 -by steelworkers at Carnegie's factory - collapsed after failed assassination on plant mgr, Henry Clay Frick.
535 - 1894 against Pullman Railcar Company in Chicago. Disrupted rail service nation-wide which threatened mail delivery. President Cleveland ordered federal troops to stop strike and get railroads going again.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
536 - grew out of activities of Western Federation of Miners, formed by Eugene V. Debs, attempted to unite all skilled and unskilled workers to overthrow capitalism.
539 - Members of Patrons of Husbandry founded by Oliver H Kelly a clerk in Dept. of Agriculture to meet social and cultural needs of farmers. Took active role in promotion of economic and political interests of farmers
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
539 - 1887 established by Congress to regulate railroads
540 - regional organizations formed to advance the interest of farmers
sub treasury system
541 - 1. Federal govt extends loans to farmers and store crops in warehouses until price increases, repay load to receive crops, sell at higher price
541 - People's Party of America formed in 1892 sought to appeal to both farmers and industrial workers
depression of 1893
544 - triggered by railroad and bank failure. Failure of govt to offer adequate response led to political realignment
544 - a. Jacob Coxey led march on Washington to initiate a federal public works program to provide jobs for unemployed
Immigrants to the United States around the turn of the twentieth century differed from those of previous eras in that they were
more ethnically diverse.
The development of urban political machines was a consequence of
weak city governments.
Which of the following characterizes the reform agenda of Jane Addams?
Poor people's problems will not be solved without the direct involvement of government.
Chicago's Hull House, a community center serving poor immigrants, was founded by
People who believed that biological engineering should be used to promote the breeding of "desirable" races and limit the reproduction of the "unfit" were called
At the end of the nineteenth century, which of the following helped new immigrants find jobs, housing, and places to socialize in their new communities?
Mutual aid societies
Despite residential segregation, the problems of the urban poor at the end of the nineteenth century became the concern of the middle and upper classes because
epidemics that began in slums usually spread to more affluent neighborhoods.
Between 1865 and 1900, the number of Catholic churches in the United States
In the early twentieth century, conflicts over appropriate styles of worship within the black church were evidence of
In 1892, schools adopted the daily recitation of the "Pledge of Allegiance" in order to
help immigrant children develop loyalty to the U.S. government and American values.
Neighborhoods dominated by a single ethnic, racial, or class group.
mutual aid societies
Voluntary associations that provide a variety of economic and social benefit to their members.
The belief that foreigners pose a serious danger to a nation's society and culture. Nativist sentiment rose in the United States as the size and diversity of the immigrant population grew.
The pseudo-science of producing genetic improvement in the human population through selective breeding. Proponents of eugenics often saw ethnic and racial minorities as genetically "undesirable" and inferior.
Popular metaphor for immigrant assimilation into American society. According to this ideal, all immigrants underwent a process of Americanization that produced a homogenous society.
Buildings more than ten stories high that first appeared in U.S. cities in the late nineteenth century. Urban crowding and high prices for land stimulated the drive to construct taller buildings.
Multifamily apartment buildings that housed many poor urban dwellers at the turn of the twentieth century. Tenements were crowded, uncomfortable, and dangerous.
small factories or shops in which workers toiled under adverse conditions. Business owners, particularly in the garment industry, turned tenement apartments into sweatshops.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
site of an infamous industrial fire in New York City in 1911. Inadequate fire safety provisions in the factory led to the deaths of 146 workers.
Urban political organization that dominated many late-nineteenth-century cities. Machines provided needed services to the urban poor, but they also fostered corruption, crime, and inefficiency.
Leader of a political machine. Men like "Boss" George Washington Plunkitt of New York's Tammany Hall wielded enormous power over city life.
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883 act that required federal jobs to be awarded on the basis of merit through competitive exams rather than through political connections.
Community centers established by urban reformers in the late nineteenth century. Settlement house organizers resided in the institutions they created and were often female, middle-class, and college educated.