Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Biomechanics exam 1
Terms in this set (41)
List the five (5) attributes of normal gait.
a. Pre-positioning of foot for initial contact
b. Stability in stance
c. Adequate step length
d. Foot clearance in swing
e. Energy conservation
List the two (2) characteristics of a young child first learning how to walk around one year of age demonstrates.
a. Stiff knees
b. Wide base of support
The adult walking pattern emerges as a toddler develops
balance____ and _equilibrium
The heel-toe gait emerges at approximately
3 ½ __ years of age.
Deviation from normal gait pattern interferes with
efficiency_ and causes an __incresased_ energy cost.
When does stance phase start?
Initial contact with heel
When does stance phase end?
When does swing phase start?
When does swing phase end?
Initial contact with heel
List the two periods of double support.
a. Loading response: after initial contact, deceleration
b. Pre-Swing: prior to toe-off
Single stand is subdivided into
mid-stance__ and _terminal stance__.
Using footprints, draw a picture of a step and a stride. Label right and left on the diagram.
L foot ________
L foot ________
R foot _________
List and define the temporal measurements that are characteristics of gait.
a. Cadence = steps/time
b. Step length = heel strike R -→ heel strike L
c. Walking velocity = distance/time = step length x cadence
d. Stride length = 2 steps
Velocity becomes constant after
5-6__ years of age.
Step length (blank) and (blank) slows as the growth occurs and the lower extremities become longer
increases__ and _cadence
Define kinematics and give two examples.
Describes motion - joint angles, displacement
Define kinetics and give two examples.
Force information - GRF's, muscle & ligament moments
Muscle power production is most affected by
_muscle length (tension)_, __
muscle type__, and _
force - velocity relationship_.
Muscles work in one of three ways. Define each of these muscle contractions and give an example AS SEEN IN THE GAIT CYCLE.
MUSCLE CONTRACTION EXAMPLE
a. Isometric (stabile) hip abductors in mid-stance
b. Concentric (isotonic shortening) gastroc during terminal stance
c. Eccentric (isotonic lengthening) soleus during mid-stance
List and define the temporal measurements that are characteristics of gait. CADENCE
List and define the temporal measurements that are characteristics of gait. STEP LENGTH
heel strike R -→ heel strike L
List and define the temporal measurements that are characteristics of gait. WALKING VELOCITY
= distance/time = step length x cadence
List and define the temporal measurements that are characteristics of gait: STRIDE LENGTH
= 2 steps
List and define the temporal measurements that are characteristics of gait: POWER
Identify the two phases of a gait cycle.
a. Stance- foot on ground
b. Swing - foot swing through space
What characteristic period distinguishes walking from running?
a. Double support - beginning and end of stance phase
When do the two periods of double floating occur in the running stride?
a. One at beginning of swing phase
b. One at end of swing phase
At what speed do most adults transition from a walking gait to running stride?
a. 5.6 mph/ 2.5 m/s
The shift from walking to running for a child occurs at a ____velocity for children. Why?
a. Balance and control have yet to be learned; leg length shorter, cadence higher.
When walking, the stance phase is ____ of the stride. When an elite athlete is sprinting, the stance phase drops to ___ of the stride.
When running, the most typical foot strike is a
When sprinting, the most typical foot strike is a
List two characteristics that distinguish a run from a sprint.
a. Fast acceleration (runner's accelerate slower than sprinters)
b. Trunk is in a more forward flexed position
List four kinematic variables to assess during locomotion.
a. Joint angles
Explain pelvic motion in relation to speed with locomotion. (Is there an increased motion of the pelvis with an increase of speed? Explain.)
a. The pelvic motion remains constant and does not increase at higher speeds. This conserves energy by stabilizing the CoG to maintain efficiency.
As speed increases, the __ and ___ tilt further forward, the ________ is lowered and the horizontal force is ____.
***pelvis and trunk
**center of mass
Maximum Knee Flexion in Swing Phase
Walking 60 degrees
Running 90 degrees
Sprinting 105 degrees
Elite Sprinters 140 degrees
When an individual is walking, pelvic rotation in the transverse plane serves to _____ the stride.
The pelvis serves as a pivot between the ____ and _____.
List four kinetic factors to be studied during locomotion.
a. Ground Reaction Forces
b. Joint Moments
c. Joint powers
d. Musculotendinous & Ligament Forces
Explain the difference in shock absorption in the body for sprinting versus running and gait.
a. During sprinting, the andkle absorbs more force than the knee
b. During running, the knee absorbs more force than the ankle
c. This inverse relationship is due to the heel-toe motion of running compared to the forefoot-toe motion of sprinting
Sets with similar terms
Suico gait mechanics
Ch. 1 Gait Analysis
Module 5- Stance & Gait
LE Biomechanics: Ch 1 Gait Analysis