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27 terms

Earth Science Chapter 12 Vocabulary

the breakup of rock due to exposure to processes at or near Earth's surface
Mechanical Weathering
break up without any change in composition
Chemical Weathering
Minerals are changed into new minerals
Frost Wedging
When ice wedges and breaks rocks apart
When chunks of rock break off a larger rock because of friction between the larger rock and the ground
Upward expansion causes rocks to break off
When water causes a chemical change to a mineral or rock
Acid Rain
Rain that contains unusually high amounts of acid
A chemical change that is caused by oxygen
Parent Material
The material from which a soil is formed
Residual Soil
Soil whose parent material is the bedrock underneath it
Transport Soil
Soil whose parent material is loose soil, boulders, sands, and gravels
Soil Profile
The cross sections of earth exposed by digging
Soil Horizon
The three distinct layers in the soil
Top Soil
The soil of A- horizon; contains humus
Sub Soil
The soil of B- horizon; contains clay that has been washed down from top soil
Mass movement
The downward transportation of weathered materials by gravity
The removal and transport of materials by natural agents
Rock fragments that have been weathered from a cliff and pulled down by gravity
Movement of a mass of bedrock or loose soil and rock down a hill, mountain or cliff
Slow imperceptible movement of soil down a slope
Blocks of land tilt and move downhill along a surface that curves into the slope
Earth Flow
Mass of weathered material that has been saturated with water that flows downhill
Rapid movement of water that contains large amount of suspended silt and clay
Soil Fertility
The ability to grow plants on fertile soil
Soil Depletion
Soil that lacks nutrients required to grow plants
The deposition of minerals that cause soil to lose their fertility