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Antibiotics

Terms in this set (124)

over the years, bacteria have develop enzymes and mechanisms to interact with antibiotics and render the antibiotic ineffective. multi drug resistance is a significant health issue, and such resistant organisms include ESBL- and CRE- producing bacteria, MRSA and VRE

the aminoglycosides are a group of natural and semisynthetic antibiotics that are classified as bactericidal drugs, are very potent, and are capable of potentially serious toxicities

quinolones are very potent, bactericidal, broad-spectrum antibiotics and include norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin

clindamycin is a semisynthetic derivative of lincomycin, an older antibiotic

linezolid is an antibacterial drug used to treat infections associated with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus calcium, more commonly referred to as VRE. VRE is a difficult infection to treat and often occurs as a HCAI

metronidazole (Flagyn) is an antimicrobial drug of the class nitroimidazole, has good activity against anaerobic organisms, and is widely used for intraabdominal and gynecologic infections; it is also used to treat protozoal infections

nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin) is an antibiotic drug of the call nitrofuran. it is indicated primarily for urinary tract infections caused by E. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp.

Quinupristin and dalfopristin (Synercid) are two streptogramin antibacterials approved for IV treatment of bacteremia and life-threatening infection caused by VRE and for treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by S. aureus and S. pyogenes

Daptomycin (Cubicin) is used to treat complicated skin and soft-tissue infections. Telavancin is a newer drug that is effective against MRSA and is indicated in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections.

Use of these antibiotics requires a critical assessment for any history or current symptoms indicative of hypersensitivity or allergic reaction (from mild reactions with rash, pruritus, and hives to severe reactions with laryngeal edema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and possible cardiac arrest)

With use of any antibiotic, it is important to asses for superinfection, or a secondary infection that occurs because of the destruction of normal flora during antibiotic therapy. Super infections may occur in the mouth, respiratory tract, GI and GU tracts, and on the skin. fungal infections are evidenced by fever, lethargy, perineal itching, and other anatomically related symptoms