450 terms

FTCE Professional Education Exam

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Mean
Adding all scores and dividing this sum by the # of scores
Median
midpoint of all scores-Middle
Mode
Is the score that appears most frequently
raw score
total # of correct responses on an assessment
Z-Score
(raw score- mean) /Standard deviation
Formative Assessment
occurs before and during instruction. Determines Student subject ability, comprehension, and skills (i.e. progress reports)
Diagnostic Assessments
administered before instruction and are designed to identify students strengths and weaknesses. (i.e. pretest, student interviews, etc.)
Summative Assessment
Most often used to determine students academic achievement in each class or course. Done at the end of a unit.
Authentic Assessment
Incorporates real-life applications task & enables the teacher to directly assess meaningful and complex educational performances.
Performance Assessment
used in music, art, and drama
Instructionally Embedded Assessment
Uses Systematic observational methods along with checklist, interviews, and questioning while students are engaged.
Traditional Assessment
Term used to describe a traditional teacher-made test composted of: True and False, multiple choice, etc.
posing questions
Open ended questions that follows up to initial question
IPDP
Individual Professional Development Plan
To renew a professional certificate teachers must earn the equivalent of a minimum of _____ in-service points during each renewal period
120
Teacher evaluation must have at least_______ % of the results on data and indicators of student learning growth for teachers who have been teaching for at least 3 years.
50
Each teacher must be appraised by the principal at least _____ per year.
Once
The principal must submit a written report of a teachers appraisal to the teacher no later than _______ days after the appraisal takes place.
10
If a teacher has deficiencies related to the teachers unsatisfactory performance. The teacher is expected to correct the deficiencies within _____ calendar days.
90
Criterion-Referenced test
assess students by comparing their performance to a predetermined level of mastery. i.e. FCAT
Stanine Scores
Usually are derived from percentiles and compare test performance using nine intervals that are numbered in order from 1 to 9.
In addition to the students academic performance, Florida law request that report cards clearly depict and grade the students ______ and the students _____
Conduct and Attendance
In high School, it is not unreasonable to expect students to do ___ to ____ hours of homework per week
7 to 15
Questions should be determined by the lesson_____
Objective
Teachers should know that everything they do in front of students is a type of
Modeling
Prompting
is the technique of eliciting more information from students, often for the purpose of clarifying students contributions or obtaining justification for their answers.
Redireting
is the technique of posing a question or prompt to students for a response or to add new insights.
Drawing inferences
is the process of reaching conclusions based on implications from students input.
In classroom discussions, it is important that _____ do most of the talking
Students
Listening in a way that indicates to the speaker that you are paying attention and hearing the speakers message is called ______ listening
Active
Head nodding is a nonverbal cue that can be used when ______ for additional information
probing
Praise should be ______ not global
specific
Teachers should avoid overusing praise because it can become ______ to students.
meaningless
Using praise to foster competition among students is ______ practice
poor
"Good Job" is an example of ________ praise
ineffective---because its not specific
Teachers should try to find something_______ to say about a students response prior to pointing out errors
positive
"Will you explain how you got that answer?" is an example of probing that could lead to a student _______ his or her own error
self-correcting
self-fulfilling prophecy
that teachers get what they expect from students
Emphasize individual progress rather than______?
competition
True or False: To convey high expectations to low achievers, a teacher should set challenging , but attainable, performance standards
True
True or False: Grouping low-ability students together provides a risk-free environment that makes them feel like they can succeed.
False: never single out students
To effectively teach all students, teachers need to be aware of individual cultural _____ among students.
differences
True or False: Peoples behaviors are usually interpreted the same across cultures.
False
True or False: Teachers can support their ESOL students communication skills by supporting and elaborating on their interactions in the classroom
True
E-mail should not take the place of ______ parent-teacher conferences.
face-to-face
As a student is talking, the teacher leans forward slightly and smiles at the student. This teacher behavior is an example of ?
Active Listening...all others are incorrect because those
This state law specifies that the "purpose of the professional development system is to increase student achievement, enhance classroom instructional strategies that promote rigor and relevance throughout the curriculum, and prepare students for continuing education and the workforce."
The School Community Professional Development Act
The evaluation of a districts professional development system must include an annual assessment of data that indicates _____ progress or lack of progress
Student
The four strands of the Florida Professional Development System Evaluation Protocol
Planning, Learning, implementing, evaluating
At a minimum teachers should have _____ hours per year, during the school day, that are designated for professional learning.
30
This standard requires the teacher to provide convincing evidence of participation in a meeting with the principal to conduct an evaluation of the degree to which the IPDP was implemented as written
Implementing the Plan
This standard requires the teacher to provide convincing evidence of reviewing the impact of professional learning on the teachers practice and professional growth.
Changes in Educator Practice
Standard requires teachers to provide convincing evidence that professional learning had a positive impact on student achievement gains as measured by classroom assessment data.
Changes in Students
This standard requires the teacher to assess the impact of professional learning by using data collected through standardized achievement measures and other valid and relative measures of student achievement and behavior.
Evaluation Methods
A teachers IPDP should be implemented as______
written
When a district has any teacher teaching out-of-field, the _____ of all students is the class shall be notified in writing of such assignment.
Parents
Teachers should use ________ research to improve instruction and student achievement.
data-informed
Reflective Practitioners
monitor and assess whether their teaching is effective
Reflective teaching
this teaching helps teachers become PROACTIVE in their teaching practices and develop self-confidence in their ability to promote student learning.
Reflective Journal
An authentic and effective way for teachers to identify strengths, challenges, and potential problems.
The ______ is the largest of the national teachers organizations
National Education Association
Is the mental process of making reasoned judgments and reaching objective conclusions by analyzing, organizing, comparing, synthesizing, logically examining, challenging, and evaluating assumptions and evidence.
Critical Thinking
Critical thinkers identify and _______ assumptions
challenge
Critical thinkers can distinguish fact from ______?
opinion
Is the mental process of generating new ideas, recognizing and finding solutions to problems, and making informed decisions.
Creative thinking
True or False: Creative thinkers see the world as absolute and unchangeable?
False
True or False: Rewarding students excessively stifles creativity.
True
Low-Complexity questions rely mainly on?
Moderate Complexity questions rely mainly on?
High Complexity questions rely mainly on?
Low- recall of information
Moderate-concrete reasoning or problem solving
High- should elicit abstract reasoning and higher-order thinking skills
List the 6 levels of Blooms Taxonomy
Knowledge/Factual
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evalutation
Blooms Taxonomy- Knowledge/Factual
involves recalling or remembering information
Blooms Taxonomy- Comprehension
involves making interpretations of previously learned material.
Blooms Taxonomy- Application
involves applying knowledge to produce a result
Blooms Taxonomy-Analysis
involves subdividing knowledge to show how it fits togheter
Blooms Taxonomy- Synthesis
involves putting together ideas or elements to form a whole
Blooms Taxonomy- Evaluation
involves judging the quality of an idea or solution.
Subdividing knowledge to show how it fits together requires ______ level thinking
analysis
This is a teaching strategy in which students generate ideas around a specific topic of interest.
Brainstorming
This is the process of thinking about and monitoring one's own thinking.
Metacognition
Successful learners set a ______ for learning
purpose
These are visual depictions of the interrelationships among abstract concepts or illustrations of process.
Graphic Organizers
Types of Graphic Organizers
(KWL chart, web, concept map, Venn Diagram, Decision Tree, Cause-Effect Chart, Flow Chart, Story Tree)
A graphic organizer that fosters logical thinking skills is a ________ chart
Flow
A graphic organizer that shows actions and their expected outcomes or consequences is a __________ tree.
Decision
True or False: Teachers should prepare graphic organizers in advance to save academic learning time.
FALSE
This involves the higher-level thinking processes that are used to make decisions or draw conclusions.
Logical Reasoning
This is the process of drawing a general conclusion based on one or more examples.
Inductive Reasoning
Is the process of using an accepted rule to draw a conclusion about a specific example
Deductive reasoning
Faulty Analogy
Assuming that because two things are alike in some respects, they are alike in all respects.
False Cause
Assuming that a first thing caused a second thing because the first thing preceded the second thing in time
Affirming the consequent
refers to assuming the first part of a conditional statement must be true when the second part is true.
Denying the antecedent
refers to assuming that when the first part of a conditional statement is not true, then the second part of the statement must also be false.
Reasoning from the specific to the general is called ____ reasoning
inductive
Reasoning from the general to the specific is called ____ reasoning
deductive
A course of reasoning offered in support of a position is called a _______
argument
is a discrepancy between what is and what could be
Problem
is the process of resolving the discrepancy thus indentified
Problem solving
What are the four steps of the Problem-Solving Strategy?
1. Identify and understand the problem
2. Brainstorm possible ways to solve the problem and devise a plan
3. Carry out the plan
4. Look back to see whether the problem has been solved
According to the SCANS Report, a problem is a "_____ between what is and what could be."
discrepancy
In practice, problem solving seldom occurs in a ______, step-by-step manner.
sequential
Is the application of critical and creative thinking in the investigation of natural phenomena through scientific inquiry.
Scientific thinking
Is the process used by scientist to obtain reliable and valid information about the world we live in.
Scientific Inquiry
Scientific Inquiry has 5 main steps. What are they?
Define the problem
Research the topic
Formulate a hypothesis
Gather evidence
Draw conclusion
A ______ is an educated guess.
Hypothesis
Scrutiny, curiosity, accuracy, precision, and verification are scientific _____
Processes
Refers to the level of cognitive demand associated with test items.
Cognitive Complexity
The FCAT uses _____ levels of cognitive complexity
3 levels
Low Complexity
Recall, identify, locate, or recognize facts or information and demonstrate simple skills or abilities
Moderate Complexity
Demonstrate comprehension and processing of information.
High Complexity
Demonstrate the use of higher-order thinking skills including abstract reasoning.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of creative thinkers?
A. Curiosity
B. Inhibition
C. Open-Mindedness
D. Confidence
inhibition
This refers to the assortment of race, ethnicity, gender, exceptionality, economic circumstance, learning style, ability level, and so on of students.
Diversity
This is the manner in which an individual perceives and processes information in learning situations.
Learning Style
According to Dunn and Dunn, classrooms can be designed to either stimulate or inhibit learning for students based on their individual learning style needs related to, what 4 factors?
Environmental setting (desk, chairs tables)
Personal characteristics (motivation, persistence, responsibility, etc.)
Social Setting (individual, pairs, small groups)
Physiological Factors (food/drink intake, time of day, and mobility, etc.)
Dunn and Dunn maintain that psychological characteristics of the student influence the students ability to learn. These characteristics include?
Impulsivity/Reflectivity Inclination
Brain Hemisphericity
Impulsive students tend to work and make decisions ____?
quickly
Reflective students ponder all the alternatives carefully before responding, working _______ and _______
cautiously and deliberately
Brain hemisphericity refers to the tendency to being either ________ or _________?
right-brain dominant or left-brain dominant
Left Brain dominant is more ________
analytical
Right Brain dominant is more ________
creative
Generally, learners who prefer to see the big picture before engaging in a learning activity are ________
Right Brained dominant
Learners who approach problem solving systematically are ______ learners
Left Brained Dominant
True or False: Instruction in most public schools in the United States has traditionally favored left brain dominant students?
True
Learners having the ability to perceive objects without being influenced by the background is called?
field independent
Learners having the ability to perceive objects as a whole rather than as individual parts is called?
field dependent
This educator created mind styles which looks at the predominant way learners prefer to process and organize information for learning.
Gregorc's
This type of learner rely on physically experiencing it
Concrete Learners
This learner is able to process symbolic, abstract representations of information.
Abstract learners
Organizing information by "chunking" information in no particular order are called?
Random Organizers
Organizing information using a linear, step-by-step approach is called?
Sequential Organizers
Using manipulatives would appeal to ______ learners
Concrete
This Educator proposed the theory of multiple intelligences.
Howard Gardner
What are the 8 multiple intelligences?
Verbal/linguistic intelligence
Logical mathematical intelligence
Visual/spatial intelligence
Body/Kinesthetic intelligence
Musical/Rhythmic intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence
Naturalistic intelligence

2 additionally have been proposed:
Spiritual intelligence
Existential intelligence
These are the causes students assign to their successes or failures?
Attributions
This reflects the degree to which students feel they have power over forces in their lives
Locus of Control
High ability students need opportunities to work ______ and also with other high ability students
alone
Struggling students are usually ______ thinkers
concrete
True or False: Whole-Group instruction usually works well in mixed-ability classes?
False
True or False: Educator Payne states "The hidden curriculum reflects middle-class values and behaviors."
True
True or False: High School teachers should encourage students to consider careers traditionally associated with their gender roles?
False
In Florida, __________ is probably best defined as celebrating diversity.
Multiculturalism
This is the natural tendency to view ones own cultural or familial ways of doing things as best and most acceptable.
Ethnocentrism
In diverse classrooms teachers should explicitly teach students ______ skills related to getting along well together.
social
True or False: Multiculturalism and ethnocentrism are interchangeable ideas?
FALSE
Advance organizers are useful for activiating students _____ knowledge
Prior
What is the PS/RtL (Problem-Solving/Response to Intervention)
is a data-based decision-making model that involves matching instruction and intervention to meet the diverse needs of learners.
PS/RtL involves ______ instruction and intervention to meet the diverse needs of learners.
matching
PS/RtL uses a ______-tier delivery system
3
What are the 3 tiers of PS/RtL
1. Interventions are the general core academic instruction and behavior support that is provided to all students in a school
2. interventions are more targeted, extra instruction and support that smaller groups of students might receive to help them catch up.
3. Interventions are the most intense instruction and support.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of left-brained dominant learns?
A. prefers to see the big picture before exploring the small details
B. Approaches problem soling systematically
C. Processes thought logically and analytically
D. depends on words and language for meaning.
A. Because they see the smaller parts first then work their way up to the main picture or idea.
This refers to a teachers conduct as a certified professional educator.
Ethics
By state law, a teachers primary professiona concern will always be for the _____ and the development of the _______ potential.
Student/Student's
By state law teachers must value the pursuit of _______
Truth
By state law, teachers must value the nurturing of ______ Citizenship
Democratic
By state law, teachers must strive for ______ growth.
Professional
Teachers should allow students to have access to _____ points of view
Diverse
Teachers should not intentionally violate a students legal ______
rights
True or False: Discrimination on the basis of marital status is not addressed in the Principles of Professional Conduct for the Education Profession in Florida.
False
Teachers must self-report within _____ hours to appropriate authorities any arrests/charges involving the abuse of a child.
48 hours
In the case of incompetence, teachers are given an opportunity to ______ before charges of incompetence are filed
Remediate
This encompasses tow components: Knowledge of human development and knowledge of how learning occurs.
Human development and learning
This takes into account the typical patterns of physical, social, and cognitive development of students in order to optimize student learning and to promote social growth.
Developmentally appropriate practices
Development occurs in a relatively _______ sequence
predictable
Students learn best when they are actively engaged in _____ their own understandings.
Constructing
This educator characterizes play as pleasurable, spontaneous, self-motivated, and freely chosen activity.
Gestwicki
Piaget identified 3 categories of increasing sophistication of play. What are they.
Functional Play-occurs between Birth to 2 years
Symbolic Play- starts around age 2
Games with rules play: Commonly begins near school age and involves the ability to agree upon and abide by rules.
This Educator identified five progressive states of play. Who was it?
Parten
What are the 5 progressive stages of play?
Onlooker play
Solitary play
Parallel Play
Associative Play
Cooperative Play
This is the physical development of children which proceeds from head to toe is called?
Cephalocaudal Progression
While cephalocaudal progression is taking place, growth and motor ability are also developing in a _______/ ________ from the central axis of the body outward
Proximodistal progression
Girls usually begin puberty at ages ___-____
8-10
Boys usually being puberty at ages ____-_____
11-13
This educator proposed that learning involves three basic processes assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration.
Jean Piaget
This involves fitting new information into existing mental structures.
Assimilation
This requires modifying current schema or creating new schema in order to take the new data or information into account.
Accommodation
When children encounter new data or information, they experience?
disequilibrium
Piaget asserted that children eventually acquire three types of knowledge?
Physical
Logical/mathematical
Social
According to Piaget, ______ or thinking, is an active and interactive process that develops in stages.
Cognition
Sensorimotor skills stage begins at what ages
Birth till 2 years
Pre-operational stage begins at what ages?
2 to 6 years old
Concrete operations stage begins at what ages?
7 -11 years old
Formal operations stage begins at what ages?
12 and continues to adulthood
_______ involves fitting new information in existing mental structures? Accommodation or Assimilation?
Assimilation
A child who recognizes that objects continue to exist even when the objects are no longer visible has acquired _____/________
Object Permanence
This stage Children see rules as unbreakable and unchangeable. This stage is called.
Heteronomous morality stage
This stage older children develop and are willing to challenge rules.
Autonomous Morality Stage
This Educator viewed learning as a process of constructing meaning by building on prior understandings. He believed that children learn best when tasks are presented to students at their appropriate level of development though a discovery-oriented approach.
Jerome Bruner
Bruner proposed three modes through which children can learn based on their level of cognitive development. They are?
Enactive Mode
Iconic Mode
Symbolic Mode
This mode involves interacting with objects in their environment.
Enactive Mode
This mode involves the use of images or graphic illustrations to convey concepts?
Iconic Mode
This mode involves using symbols and words to represent concepts.
Symbolic mode
True or False: Bruner believed that children learn best through direct instruction?
False
This educators work is based on the premise that learning cannot be understood without consideration of its cultural and social context.
Lev Vygotsky
This is the ability to learn and solve problems on ones own without assistance.
Self-regulation
This is the distance between a students independent level of problem-solving ability and the students potential level of problem solving ability that can be achieved with assistance from an adult or more capable peer.
Zone of proximal development
Vygotsky refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process known as?
Scaffolding
The self-talk learners use to monitor and guide themselves as they work through a problem is called _____/______
private speech
The zone of proximal development is the distance between a students independent level of problem-solving ability and the students _____ level of problem-soling ability that can be achieved with assistance.
Potential
True or False: Scaffolding should be diminished as learners become self-regulated.
True
This educator studied the ways children reason about rules that govern their moral behavior
Lawrence Kohlberg
Kohlberg concluded that moral development occurs in a specific sequence of stages. Identify the 6 stages and age ranges.
Preconventional level- Birth to 9 years

1. Punishment-Obedience Orientation
Rules are obeyed to avoid punishment. Accepts rules, but internalization of moral values is lacking

2. Instrumental-Relativist Orientation
Whats right is whatever satisfies ones own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Behaves to get a reward.

Conventional Level- 10-15 years
3. Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
Good behavior is doing what others expect and whatever is approved by them . Accepts and respects authority. Peer acceptance is needed.

4. Law-Order Orientation
Good behavior is doing ones duty, respecting authority, and obeying the laws of society. Regardless of the circumstances, it is wrong to break rules.

Postconventional Level-16 to Adulthood
5. Social Contract Orientation
Whats right is defined in terms of standards that have been agreed upon by the whole society. Obeys rules, but might question them recognizes that rules are subject to change if outdates. Respects right of others.

6. Universal Ethical Principle
Whats right is a decision of ones conscience according to ethical principles. Ethical principles are abstract concepts such as justice, equality, and the dignity of all people.
This educator took issue with Kohlbergs theory of moral development, contending that it failed to take into consideration obvious gender differences. According to _____, when making moral decision, men and boys rely on their sense of fairness and justice more often than do women and girls. While women and girls respond from a caring perspective and sense of responsibility. Who was this educator
Carol Gilligan.
This educator developed a life-cycle conception of personality development. According to this person, people go through a series of major crises as they proceed through life. What is this educators name.
Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson states that at each stage, there is a critical social crisis. How the individual reacts to each future crisis is determined by earlier development and by adjustment to social experiences. What are these stages and ages that correspond.
Trust versus mistrust- Birth -18 months
Autonomy versus doubt 18-3 years
Initiation versus guilt 3-6 years
Industry versus inferiority 6-12 years
Identity versus role confusion 12-18
Intimacy versus isolation- young adulthood
Generativity versus self-absorption-middle adulthood
Integrity versus despaire - late adulthood
This is a learning theory based on using immediate consequences to either waken or strenghten a learns observable response
Behvaiorism
The appropriate use of _______, which is a pleasant consequence that follows a behavior , is an essential strategy associate with a behavioristic approach to learning.
reinforcement
Reinforcers are either _____ reinforcers or ______ reinforcers
Extrinsic (which are external to a student such as tangible rewards or grades)
Intrinsic (comes from within a student, just as personal enjoyment or problem solving)
This is the process of weakening and eventually eliminating the occurrence of a behavior usually though the removal or withholding of reinforcement.
Extinction
_______ uses positive reinforcement upon successful completion of incremental steps along the way toward a desired learning goal or behavior to change a students behavior.
Shaping
This form of punishment involves giving an undesirable consequence (for example, extra work) in order to deter undesirable behavior.
Positive punishment
This form of punishment involves taking away a desirable reward (i.e. free time) in order to deter undesirable behavior.
Negative punishment
True or False: Detention is an example of negative reinforcement?
False
True or False: In Florida, cognitive psychology approaches are not as acceptable as approaches grounded in behaviorism?
False
This is a learner-centered approach to teaching that emphasizes teaching for understanding, predicated on the concept that students construct knowledge by making connections between present learning experiences and the existing knowledge they already possess.
Constructivism
Constructivist teachers recognize the power of _____ dynamics
group
True or False: Activating prior knowledge is an important component of a constructivist classroom.
Responsibility
This is the willingness or desire of a student to exhibit a behavior such as productively engaging in a learning experience.
Motivation
The desire to learn originates within the student and stems from the students intellectual curiosity, attitudes and beliefs. This is called.
Intrinsic Motivation
IF a desire to learn does not arise from within a student, the teacher may need to stimulate _____/_____ by using external reinforcement in the form of rewards or incentives to get the student to engage in learning.
Extrinsic motivation
This is the tendency to strive for success and to choose goal oriented, success/failure activities.
Achievement motivation
This legal act requires teachers in Florida to provide needed modifications and accommodations to students with disabilities.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
What kind of accommodation is it when a teacher uses adaptive ways to inform and present test to students?
Presentation accommodations
What kind of accommodation is it when a teacher allows students to use braillers, large-key calculators, and devices with an audio component?
Response Accommodations
What kind of accommodation is it when a teacher is able to make adaptive ways to change the setting to make completion of assignments and test more appropriate for the student.
Setting accommodations
What kind of accommodation is it when the teacher is able to alter time constraints and scheduling to be more appropriate for the student.
Timing and scheduling accommodations.
Modifications are changes in ______ a student is expected to learn
What
Accommodations are changes in _____ a student accesses information and demonstrates performance
How
In order for an accommodation to be allowed on the FCAT the accommodation must be specified on the IEP or 504 and used _____ in classroom instruction and assessment.
regularly
This is the ability to construct meaning from content-area texts and literature encountered in school
Academic literacy
Students self-evaluate and self-monitor how how well they understand while they read. The process of self-monitoring is called
Metacognition
This is a systematic approach by readers fro learning involving flexible, adaptable, and conscious use of knowledge, reading and learning to predict, confirm and integrate as they read.
Reading strategy
A process in which the teacher works students through a new procedure or strategy, providing assistance when needed.
guided practice
An approach to teaching that explicitly informs students as to the nature of a reading strategy, how it works, why it should be used, and where and when to use it is....
direct instruction
This refers to the various ways ideas are organized in text
Text structure
This refers to features such as table of contents, chapters, glossary, and index
Book Structure
Is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words
Phonemic awareness
These are the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word
Phonemes
Consist of a small group of from 300 to 500 words that are frequently encountered in text
High Frequency words
Words that readers should immediately recognize
Sight words
Is the level at which a reader can read text with 95% accuracy
Independent reading level
Compare/Contrast is a type of _____/______
Test structure
An approach to teaching that recognizes instructional strategies is _______/_______
Strategic teaching
True or False: Comprehension is an inactive process
False
Is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words
Phonemic awareness
This teaches the students the relationship between the letters of written language and the individual sounds of spoken language.
Phonics
Students learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into sounds and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words: C-A-T=Cat
Synthetic Phonics
Students learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They DO NOT pronounce sounds in isolation, but rather look for the common sound: Example-A list is presented with the words cloud, house, and loud. They look for the common sound "ou"
Analytic Phonics
Students learn to use parts of word families they know in order to identify words they don't know that have similar parts: Example- word families/chunks include "at" "ing" and "ay". The first sound may be hanged to make different words.
Analogy-based phonics
Students learn to segment words in phonemes and to make words by writing letters for phonemes: Example Spell Cat... C-A-T
Phonics Through Spelling
Students are taught letter-sound relationship as they read, this approach is not systematic or explicit. Example- student might encounter the word xylophone and experience difficulty with the sound made by the letters "xy"
Embedded Phonics
Students learn to identify the sound of the letter or letters before the first vowel in a one-syllable word and the sound of the remaining part of the word (rime). An example of an onset and rime is "sh-out"--- "Sh" is the onset and "out" is the rime
Onset-Rime phonics instruction
This is where the parent reads a story while the child looks at the text being read and follows along
Shared Reading
Is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly
Fluency
This type of reading is where students read along as a group with the teacher or another fluent adult reader.
Choral Reading
This type of reading students develop a script and dramatize a reading selection or book
Readers Theater
The student reads one-on-one with an adult
Student-adult reading
Students read along in their books as they hear a fluent reader read the book on an audiotape.
Tape-assisted reading
Students take turns reading aloud to each other.
Partner reading
Prosody refers to the pitch, intonation, and _______ of reading
expression
Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading _________ and overall reading achievement
Fluency
________/______/________/_______ is important because most words are learned from context. Therefore , it is important to provide students with in-depth and sustained instruction in context clues
Searching for context clues
This is a vocabulary development activity whereby students enhance their understanding of key words by graphically mapping them.
Context word mapping
This is the smallest unit of meaning in the langage
Morpheme
Morphology
is the study of how morphemes are combined to make words
Is the breaking down of words into each uninterrupted unit of spoken language, is often presented in such a fragmented manner in materials that students are unable to pull all components together into a viable word analysis strategy
Syllabication
Information from the immediate textual setting that helps identify a word from the surrounding context is called a _____/_____
Context Clue
The identification of roots and affixes involves _____/_____
structural analysis
This is the first stage of instruction in reading. The reading process does not being as readers open a book and read the first sentence, but preparing them to read it. This is called
Pre-reading stage
This reading stage is when students use their knowledge of decoding and word identification, high frequency words, strategies, and skills to understand what they are reading.
During Reading Stage
During the "During Reading Stage" what are different techniques that could occur while the student is reading the text. 5 things
Monitoring comprehension (being aware of what they know)

Question Answering (asking and answering questions about the text)

Reciprocal teaching (using a teaching strategy in which students are involved in the cognitive strategies of summarizing, questioning, clarifying and predicting as they read.

Identifying text structure (Using explicit instruction in identifying the structure of narrative and expository text)

Multiple strategy instruction (Assisting students in applying and practicing multiple strategies while reading)
This Stage in reading is the time when the teacher interacts with both the student and text in meaningful dialogue
After Reading Stage
What 4 teaching techniques could be used during the "After Reading Stage"?
Summarizing (Reinstate main ideas)
Question generating (Engaging interactive questioning)
Using graphic and semantic organizer
Return to the text (to search for answers)
Preparing a brief synopsis that contains the essential ideas of a longer passage or selection is called
Summarizing
_________ text is explanatory text
Expository
A systematic plan to improve ones performance in learning is called a _______
strategy
____/_____/______ are valuable tools in encouraging students to read analytically
Critical response journals
Analysis, synthesis, and _______ are higher-order thinking skills
evaluation
Teachers from various subject disciplines collaborate to develop a thematic unit... this is called
Multidisciplinary Studies
The organization of instruction around a central topic is called______
Thematic
_______ is a way to provide high-quality instruction in a variety of learning settings to meet the needs of students.
PS/RtL
References, material, and technologies should relate directly to learning _______
objectives
This means being prepared each day with lesson plans and everything needed to implement those plans
Planning
_____ means going through each lesson mentally from the students point of view and anticipating explanations, information, and directions they will need.
Preplanning
Students at risk of academic failure usually need _______ orientation to classroom rules and procedures.
Explicit
According to the Educator Jacob Kounin, the main difference between successful and unsuccessful classroom managers is that successful classroom managers are ______ in preventing disruptions before they occur.
Proactive
A teacher who is able to give instruction and distribute materials at the same time is exhibiting, what?
Overlapping
A teacher who redirects an off-task student when the teachers attention appears to be focused elsewhere is exhibiting _____?
Withitness
In Maslow's Hierarchy, what are all the needs that need to be met by a human being? 5 items
Physiological needs (food, shelter, etc)
Safety Needs (predictable environment)
Belongingness and love
Esteem Needs (self-respect, worthiness)
Self-actualization needs (self-fulfillment and personal achievement)
Under Florida law, teachers can use _______ force against students to protect themselves from harm or injury
Reasonable
True or False: Corporal punishment is illegal in Florida Public Schools?
False
Under Florida Law, a teacher who removes 25% of his or her total class enrollment
A. is required to complete professional development to improve classroom management skills
B. must be placed immediately on probation by the principal
C. will have his or her license permanently revoked
D. is required to meet with the parents of the removed students to work out a plan for readmitting the students to the teachers class.
Answer is: A
This is the decision-making process teachers use to develop instructional plans.
Planning
Before planning a lesson, a teacher must first determine instructional long-term goals appropriate to student needs. The goals must be based on the ____/_____/______/______/_______
Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS)
State Standards are divided into smaller units called?
Benchmarks
True or False: Worksheets and drills are the hallmarks of effective instruction?
False
This is a clearly written statement of what students are expected to know and be able to do as a result of an instructional learning experience.
Instructional objective
Well-written instructional objectives consist of 3 elements. What are they?
Action-what will the student do
Conditions-circumstances in which the action will take place
level of mastery-proficiency expected for the action
This is the process of identifying the prerequisite skills and prior knowledge that students must have in order to achieve the instructional object with a high degree of success.
Task Analysis
Blooms classification system is used in curriculum development, teaching, and testing and consists of three general categories called_____
Domains
List the 3 domains in Blooms Classification
Cognitive Domain-is the category for learning that involves thinking capabilities from recalling simple facts to judging the quality of an argument

Affective Domain- is the category for learning that involves feeling, values, and dispositions.

Psychomotor Domain- is the category for learning that involves manual, athletic, and other physical skills.
The circumstances in which the action of an instructional objective will take place are called the ________.
Conditions
Is a teacher-centered instructional strategy based on the behaviorist point of view that the teacher is the expert in the classroom who should systematically and explicitly pass along information to students.
Direct Instruction
This type of instruction uses one-way communication to attempt to convey knowledge to the learner orally?
Lecture Method
This instruction is a learner-centered instructional strategy based on the constructivist belief "that learning is an active process, that it has social aspects, and that is is context specific?
Constructivist instruction
This type of learning is designed to encourage students to be active learners while exploring new concepts.
Discovery learning
This type of learning is when students engage when they have identified a problem to be solved
Inquiry learning
This learning is when students investigate real-world problems and then share their findings.
Project-Based Learning or Problem-Based Learning
Is an instructional strategy, developed by Palinscar and Brown, which is designed to increase students reading comprehension.
Reciprocal Teaching
This is characterized by a shift in responsibility for learning from the teacher to the student.
Individualized Instruction
These are carefully designed, designated places in the classroom where students can go to explore and learn, either individually or with others.
Work Station or Learning Centers
In ______/______ a trained student tutor teaches a same-age classmate or a younger student
Peer Tutoring
This is the result of when a teacher combines several disciplines into one or more lessons.
Interdisciplinary Instruction
This type of instruction is the result when a teacher designs one or more lessons around a central theme or topic.
Thematic Instruction
Direct instruction is a (learner-centered or teacher-centered) instructional strategy?
Teacher Centered
Constructivist instruction is a (learner-centered or teacher-centered) instructional strategy
Learner Centered
What are the basic steps of a lesson cycle model? 7 steps
1. Focus (gain attention)
2. Explanation
3. Check for understanding
4. Guided Practice
5. Closure
6. Independent Practice
7. Reteach and Extend
The 5E model also called the learning cycle model, follows the principle that students learn best when they are provided opportunities to construct their own understanding of concepts by building on prior knowledge and by actively engaging in the learning experience. List the 5 "E's"
Engage
Explore
Explain
Extend/Elaborate
Evaluate
During the explore component of a 5E lesson, the teachers role is as a ?
Facilitator
According to Johnson and Johnson, the five critical attributes of cooperative learning are what? List the 5
Postive Interdependence
Individual accountability
Group processing of social skills
Face-to-Face promotive interaction
Effective interpersonal interaction
What are the 4 special types of cooperative learning descried in the Florida Curriculum Framework?
Jigsawing - group members become experts on an assigned topic that they then teach to others, after that they bring it all together

Corners- Group members meet in a designated corner of the room to discuss an assigned topic and then teach it to the rest of the class

Think, Pair, and Share- First, students work individually on a assigned problem-solving task; next, they pair with a partner to discuss and revise and finally, they share their results with the entire class.

Debate- Students work in teams to research a topic and formulate persuasive arguments supporting their viewpoints on an issue.
Which of the following instructional strategies is most compatible with a behaviorist point of view?
A. Discovery learning
B. Project Based learning
C. Inquiry Learning
D. Direct Instruction
D.
In spring 2015, the FCAT 2.0 was replaced by the _____/______/______ in English language arts and mathematics to measure student achievement of the Florida Standards.
Florida Standards Assessments (FSA)
What are signs of Emotional distress?
Sudden changes in personality, behavior, or academic performance, anxiety, mood swings, sadness, depression, weight loss/gain, etc.
What are warning signs of suicide?
Changes in sleep or eating patters, neglect of personal appearance, depression, sadness, anger, aggressiveness, alcohol or drug abuse, self mutilation, isolation, loss of interest. etc.
What are some Urgent Danger Signs
hopelessness, talking, writing or hinting about suicide, lethargy, apathy, extreme changes in behavior.
Signs of Performance enhancing drugs
unusual gain in muscle mass, aggressive behavior or rage, deeper voice, severe acne, stomach pain,
______ is any willful act that results in physical, mental or sexual injury or harm to a child
Abuse
______ is infliction of physical, mental or emotional injury upon a child.
Harm
_______ is a willful rejection of parental obligation with no provisions for the child's support and no effort to communicate with the child.
Abandonment
______ is failure to supply or making provisions for adequate food, clothing, shelter, or healthcare for a child.
Neglect
Eating disorder that one starves themself
Anorexia Nervosa
Eating disorder that involves self-induced vomitting
Bulimia
Eating disorder with frequent episodes of overeating
Binge Eating
Teachers Should or Should NOT investigate before making a child abuse report?
Should Not
True or False: The identity of the person making a child abuse report must be, by law, reported to the parents of the child.
False
In Florida students who have special learning needs are called ________/_________/________
Exceptional Student Education (ESE)
Under IDEA, each student identified as a student with disabilities must have an ______/______/______
Individual Educational Plan IEP
This refers to the commitment to educate each child to the maximum extent.
Inclusion
The FAC requires gifted students to have an ______/_____
Educational Plan EP
______/_______ are the rights of parents and students relating to notice, consent, independent education evaluation, records, hearings, and appeals in accordance with federal and state law.
Procedural Safe-Guards
In Florida, ESE services are provided to students with disabilities and to students identified as ______ students
gifted
IDEA requires that states provide a free appropriate public education to children with disabilities in the _________-restrictive environment
least
This is a group of individuals who make decisions about the services and accommodations or modifications provided to a student with a disability.
IEP team
This is a group of individuals who make decisions about the ESE services provided to students who are gifted
EP team
This team determines a students eligibility for special services under Section 504 writes the plan and is called the?
504 team
When a parent, teacher or other member of the school staff raises a concern about a students behavior or academic progress, a ____ is assembled to collect and review information
CST
This team of individuals who are responsible for overseeing a LEP students ESOL program
LEP committee
This is a team consisting of two or more teacher from different subject areas who collaboratively plan for the students they commonly instruct.
interdisciplinary team
The ______ is an advisory group composed of the principal, teachers, education support staff, parents and business and other community members whos primary purpose is to assist in the preparation and evaluation of the School Improvement Plan (SIP)
SAC
This team is composed of the principal ,teachers, parents, and other community members. In regards to school budget, hiring, and job responsibilities of faculty and staff.
SBM team
The EP team must meet at least once every _____ years for students in kindergarten through 8th grade and at least once every _____ years for students in grades 9-12
3 & 4
The compulsory school attendance laws apply to all children between the ages of 6 and _____ years
16
Reports cards must clearly depict and grade the students academic performance in each class or course, the students ______, and the students attendance.
Conduct
True or False: Every student must have a Social Security number in order to enroll in school.
False
Recognizing the significance of technology literacy for teachers and students, the International Society for Technology in Education developed the _____/______/_______/_______
National Education Technology Standards
The No Child Left Behind Act of 201 requires that every student be technology literate by the end of the _____ grade?
8th grade
Communication in which there is a time delay between sending and receiving messages?
Asynchronous communication
the amount of data that can be moved to a computer during a given period of time
Bandwidth
BI/OS stands for?
Basic Input/ Output System, the system that starts up the computer and communicates between devices within the system.
A circuit that connects the CPU with other devices in a computer
bus
Connecting to and using computer storage, resources, and applications from an off-side third-party provider
cloud computing
The term used to describe the deceptive practices that online predators use to gain their victims trust
Cyber Grooming
A high-bandwidth technology for connecting to the Internet that permits data transmission at far greater speeds than standard dial-up service
digital subscriber line DSL
The three characters following the dot at the end of a file name that indicates the file type
extension
A standardized Internet procedure for transferring files from one computer to another.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
An electronic hateful and personal attack in an e-mail, chat room, bulletin board, blog or son.
Flame
The FDOE instructional television broadcast service which is in partnership with Florida school districts and Florida public television stations.
Florida Knowledge Network
A web address matching the query posed to a search engine, or an occurrence of accessing a website by an Internet User
Hit
A computer system that is accessed from a remote location.
Host
The formatting language of the Internet, used to create web pages and specify how they will appear on screen
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
A device that is sued to put information INTO a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, etc
input device
Copyrighted Material
Intellectual propety
Devices or programs designed to communicate information between computing systems or programs
Interface
An entity that provides paid access to the Internet.
Internet Service Proder (ISP)
An internal network restricted to users within an organization.
Intranet
A lightweight, miniature, portable storage device for computer files
jump drive
A short distance network (less than 500 meters) used to link a group of computers with a room, building or campus.
Local area Network (LAN)
A device that is used to get information OUT of a computer such as a monitor, printer, speaker or headphones
output device
Stands for Peer to peer sharing on websites designed to allow file sharing
P2P
A software solution to correct a problem in a software programs
Patch
A device that is connected to a computer but operates separately form the central processing unit of the computer. (keyboard, monitor, printer, etc.
peripheral
A software piece that is used to alter or enhance a program or system
plug-in
A website or service that offers an array of resources and services such as email, search engines and online shopping
portal
A commercial interactive whiteboard
Promethean slate
The memory location in a computer where the operating system, applications, programs and data in current use are TEMPORARILY stored
RAM
The sequence of words and or symbols used to define a search on the internet
search string
The programming language instructions to a computer in their original form.
Source code
Communication that takes place in real time with no delay in sending and receiving messages
Synchronous communication
Refers to communication protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet.
TCP/IP
An internet address which consists of several parts including the protocol, the server where the web pages resides, the path and the file name of the resource.
URL- Uniform Resource Locator
A decentralized, worldwide system of discussion groups called newsgroups.
Usenet
A network which can be made up of interconnected smaller networks, that allows users to communicate and share information throughout a district a state or the world
wide area network (WAN)
A destructive program that reproduces itself to cause damage to a computer system or netowrk
worm
_____is based on the belie that ideas are the only true reality
Idealism
What are the two well-known philosophers associated with idealism
Socrates and Plato
This is based on the belief that physical objects are the only true realigy
Realism
Two important individuals associated with realism are?
Aristotle and Francis Bacon
This primarily an American philosophy it is based on the belief that true reality is that which works.
Pragmatism
Two important individuals associated with pragmatism are?
Charles Sanders Pierce and John Dewey
Dewey is known as the father of _____
progressivism
This is based on the belief that true reality lies within the individuals own unique experiences?
Existentialism
Two important individuals associated with existentialism are?
Soren Kierkegaard and Jean Paul Sartre
The implementation of state-mandates testing and teacher licensure are a result of the _____ movement
Accountability
A german educator who founded the kindergarten movement
Friedrich Froebel
Often called the father of American public education, let the movement for public education in MA and influenced individuals in other states to push for public education in their states.
Horace Mann
A German philosopher, introduces a teaching methodology based on his understand of how learning occurs,-- a revolutionary concept at the time and one that led to the science of pedagogy
Johann Friedrick Herbart
Advocated for women to be educated and become teachers
Catherine Beecher
A woman's right activist, advocated for equal pay and treatment for female teachers
Susan B Anthony
Led the progressive child-centered movement, which still persists in todays schools
John Dewey
An Italian educator, introduced a child-centered teaching methodology designed around developmentally appropriate practices.
Maria Montessori
A Russian psychologist, introduced the theory of zone and proximal development
Lev Vygotsky
A swiss psychologist/researcher/educator noted in the area of child development established the theory of flexible yet sequential states of child development and the theory that knowledge is best transmitted via social interaction with others and the world.
John Piaget
A psychologist, advocated behaviorist learning theories as a means to control behavior and developed programmed instruction using behaviorist methods
B.F.Skinner
A developmental psychologist, established the theory of multiple intelligence, strong influence on teaching/learning modaltists
Howard Gardner
The son of a slave, advocated for vocational education for African American as a way for them to escape poverty
Booker T Washington
A civil rights activist, pushed for a liberal edcuation for African Americans
W.E.B. Du Bois
This law required that parents must see to their childrens education
The Massachusetts Law of 1642
This court case CREATED the doctrine of "separate but equal"
Plessy vs. Ferguson
This Court case Banned the practice of racial segregation in schools, striking down the notion of "separate buy equal" schooling
Brown vs. Board of Education
Decided that teachers in Florida are held to a high moral standard by virtue of their positions
Tomerlin vs Dade School Board
The _______/_____law restricted copying of copyrighted material including text, audio, video, etc. But under ___/_____ teachers can do limited copying but the amount needs to be brief and the use must not be long term
Copyright law/Fair Use
This Act prohibited discrimination against students and employees in the Florida K-20 public education system on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, gender, disability, or marital status. It specified that no person shall be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any K-20 public education program or activity.
Florida Educational Equity Act of 1984 (FEEA)
This court case resulted in the Florida Consent Decree, which mandates equal access to program subject matter, content, and benefits to English for Speakers of Other languages (ESOL) students in florida public schools.
League of United Latin American Citizens vs. Florida Board of Education
Provided "Stronger accountability for results, more freedom for states and communities, proven education methods, and more choices for parents"
No Child Left Behind
The McKinney-Vento Act prohibits segregation in schools of ______Children
homeless
True or False: By case law, teachers lose the right to make public statements of any kind when the become employed by a school district.
False
In Florida, the code for a non-LEP/ELL student is
ZZ
In Florida, the code used for a student who is currently enrolled in classes designed for LEP/ELL students is
LY
BICS
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
EFL
English as a Foreign Language
ELL
English Language Learner
ESE
Exceptional Student Education
ESL
English as a Second Language
ESOL
English for speakers of other languages
LEP
Limited English Proficient
TESOL
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other languages
This Florida policy implemented ESOL accommodations
Florida Consent Decree
The Florida Consent Decree has 6 sections. What are the 6
1. Identification and Assessment
2. Equal Access to Appropriate Programming
3. Equal Access to Appropriate Categorical and other Programs for LEP students
4. Personnel
5. Monitoring Issues
6. Outcome Measures
This refers to he survey that is given to all Florida students at the time of enrollment
Home language survey
Within _____ days of registration, potential LEP students are given an age appropriate English language assessment test. This is also called ________ procedure
20 days/Assessment
This means instruction to develop skills in speaking, listening, reading and writing of English sufficient to enable the student to be English proficient.
Basic ESOL program
This is a written state-approved plan prepared by the district that describe the districts proposed procedures and methodologies for servicing LEP students.
District LEP plan
The five areas of second language development are?
1. Pre-Production-known as silent period
2. Early Production
3. Speech Emergence
4. Intermediate Fluency
5. Advanced Fluency
This focuses on learning the target language in context
Integrated language teaching
Stephen Krashens theory of second language has 5 hypotheses. what are they?
1. The Acquisiton-learning hypothesis
2. The Monitor hypothesis
3. Natural Order Hypothesis
4. Input Hypothesis
5. Affective Filter
The language skills required for everyday activities are called?
basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
Acquiring BICS takes from 6 months to ____ years to acquire after initial exposure to the second language.
2
Acquiring CALP takes from 5 years to ____ years to acquire after initial exposure to the second lanaguge
7 years
Jim Cummins identified four levels of increasing language difficulty as shown below. State the level and provide examples.
Level 1. Cognitively undemanding + Context-Embedded
Having a conversation with friends; ordering food at a cafeteria, playing sports. etc

Level 2 Cognitively Undemanding + Context-Reduced
Ordering food over the telephone; following instructions given on a tape-recordered message reading a letter from a friend

Level 3. Cognitively Demanding + Context-Embedded
Solving math problems using graphs, charts, figures, diagrams, or manipulative.

Level 4. Cognitively Demanding + Context-Reduced
Proving math theorems; writing a research reports; listening to a presentation on an unfamiliar topic
The vocabulary used in a particular professional, subject area or social group
Lexicon
The systematic arrangement of words in a sentence
Syntax