IB SEHS Skill in Sport (Topic 5 - terms)
Terms in this set (50)
the consistent production of goal-oriented movements, which are learned and specific to the task (McMorris 2004)
different type of skill
Cognitive skills, perceptual skills, motor skills, perceptual-motor skills
Ability to solve problems by thinking
Process by which you sense things and interpret them. The organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
A voluntary body movement with a predetermined end result
Involve the thought, interpretation and movement skills
a general trait or capacity of the individual that is related to the performance and performance potential of a variety of skills or tasks.
Control precision, multi-limb coordination, response orientation, reaction time, speed of arm movement, rate control, manual dexterity, arm-hand steadiness, wrist-finger speed, aiming, postural discrimination, response integration
physical proficiency abilities
Extent flexibility, dynamic flexibility, static strength, dynamic strength, explosive strength, trunk strength, gross body coordination, gross body equilibrium, stamina
the "way in which that sports skill is performed"
relationship between ability, skill, and technique
skill= ability + technique
is the system by which we take information from our surrounding environment, use it to make a decision and then produce a response.
Input-> decision making-> output
Info from the environment which the player is aware of and uses to decide on a response to a situation
Combination of recognition, perception and memory process used to select an appropriate response to the demands of the situation
Response which the player makes. Often becomes a form of feedback
Welford's model of information processing (1968)
i) sense organs
iii) short-term memory
iv) long-term memory
v) decision making
vi) effector control
components associated with sensory input
exteroceptors, proprioceptors, introceptors
provide information about the external environment
provide information about the position and posture of our body in space. They sense stimuli from the muscles, tendons and the joints as well from the vestibular apparatus
signal detection process
Often referred to as the detection- comparison-recognition process (DCR)
-a means to quantify the ability to discern between information-bearing patterns (stimulus) and random patterns that distract from the information (noise, intensity, efficiency of sensory organ, early detection & improving detection)
methods of memory improvement
Rehearsal, coding, brevity, clarity, chunking, organisation, association and practice
Response time= reaction time + movement time.
The time from the initiation of the stimulus to the completion of the movement
Time between the on set of a stimulus and then initiation of that response
Initiation of first movement to the completion of that movement
a relatively permanent change in performance brought about by experience, excluding changes due to maturation and degeneration.
a temporary occurrence, fluctuating over time.
performance vs. learning
A permanent change in performance over time is often used to infer learning.
cognitive phase of learning
Is the earliest phase of learning, when the performer understands what needs to be done. There is quite a lot of trial and error in this stage, the beginner trying out certain movements which may be successful or fail
associative phase of learning
In this stage the performer practices, and compares or associates the movements produced with the mental image. This is the stage at which feedback occurs and the learner gradually becomes more aware of the increasingly subtle and complex cues. During this stage a vast improvement in performance usually occurs.
autonomous phase of learning
Is the final stage of the skill-learning process. Movements are becoming almost automatic, with very little conscious thought. Any distractions are largely ignored and the performer is able to concentrate on more peripheral strategies and tactics.
A learning curve is a way to evaluate the extent to which a skill is being learnt by plotting measures of practice versus measures of performance
After steady improvements in performance, a learning plateau is a stage where there appears to be little or no improvement.
As practice increases, so does performance in a proportional relationship
positive accelerated curve
Indicates slight performance gains initially then rapid improvements in performance
negatively accelerated offer
Indicates rapid initial improvements then lesser gains from practice
factors that contribute to different rates of learning
Physical maturation, physical fitness, motivation, age, coaches, teaching environment, amount of practice.
concept of transfer
Transfer in skill acquisition is the influence of learning and/or performance of one skill on the learning and/or performance of another. If this influences a skill yet to be learned or performed it is called proactive transfer, if it influences the performance of a previous learnt skill it is called retroactive.
is seen as practice with relatively long breaks or rest periods between each attempt or block of attempts. e.g beginner, less experienced, limited preparation, less motivated
is seen as being almost continuous practice with very little or no rest at all between attempts or blocks of trials. e.g experienced, older, fitter, more motivated
a specific movement is practiced repeatedly, often referred to as a drill. This type of practice is ideal for skills that are always performed in the same way, that do not require adapting to the environment.
practicing a skill in a variety of different contexts and experiencing the full range of situations in which the technique or tactic might be used in competition. The learner applies the skill to a number of different environments in practice, allowing both the development of the skill and the ability to adapt the skill to a range of possible situations.
Is the mental or cognitive rehearsal of a skill without actual physical movement. n the early stages of learning (cognitive phase) mental rehearsal is initially seen as the learner going through a skill/task and building up a mental picture of the expected performance in their mind (cognitive process)
The whole method of learning is when the activity or skill is presented in total and practised as full/entire skilled movement or activity
A variation on whole or part method is often used with performers in the Cognitive/Associative stages is whole-part-whole practice. The teacher/coach introduces the complete skill, highlighting the important elements. The performer then attempts to carry out the skill. As a result of any problems or faults observed the teacher then breaks the whole skill down into sub-routines in order to allow the learner to practice appropriate areas of difficulty.
Skills which are very complex but low in organisation lend themselves to being practised and learned more effectively by the parts method. An additional consideration is again how interrelated or independent the sub-routines are. Activities such as freestyle are not too complex but low in organisation lend themselves to being taught by the part method.
The progressive part method is where earlier independent actions change their form to become something totally different. A learner taught complex skills by the progressive part method benefits from the positive aspects of both part and whole methods. A gymnast coach trying to develop a gymnast's routine would often follow the progressive part method
This is the authoritarian style. Within this approach there is little consideration given to the individual with all learners treated very much in the same way. This style is thought to inhibit cognitive learning as thinking and questioning are not encouraged by the teacher. It is useful when working with beginners, large groups and in dangerous and limited time situations where safety is paramount.
Although what is taught is still determined by the teacher, it allows learners to take slightly more responsibility and become more involved in the decision making process. The sessions are structured in order that the objectives are clearly stated to the learners.
problem solving presentation
The problem solving approach encourages students to be creative and develop their individual cognitive and performance processes.
Operates in the short-term sensory store (STSS). Blocks out irrelevant information, allows focus on relevant information. Can be improved through learning from past experiences.
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