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FTCE Elementary Education Science (K-6)
Terms in this set (38)
is the amount of matter an object has.
is everything around you. Atoms and molecules are all composed of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
is the amount of space occupied by an object
is a force that comes from gravity pulling down on any object with mass
is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses.
is the ratio of mass to volume.
is the ability to float. Buoyancy is the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.
A long time ago a Greek scientist named Archimedes discovered an important scientific law related to buoyancy. It can be expressed as 'Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.'
The two types of matter changes
1) Physical change - affects the size, form, or appearance of a material. For example, melting, bending of cracking something can cause a phyical change. However, it does not the moleclar structure of a material.
2) Chemical change - alters the molecular structure of matter.
Types of Matter Classifications
consists of only one type of atom. A symbol of one or two letters, such as Fe (iron) or C (carbon), represents an element.
is a matter that comprises atoms chemically combined in definite weight proportions. An example of a compound is water, which is oxygen and hydrogen combined in the ratio of two hydrogen molecules to one oxygen molecule (H2O).
is made up of one or more types of molecules, not chemically combined and without any definite weigh proportion. For example, milk is a mixture of water and butterfat particles. Mixtures can be separated by either physical or chemical means. An example of physical means would be straining the butterfat from milk to make skim milk.
is a homogeneous mixture - that is, mixtures with evenly distrubuted substances. An example of a solution is seawater. Separating the salt from seawater requires the process of evaporation.
Three Main States of Matter
has a definite volume and a definite shape (like ice).
has a definite volume but has no definite shape (like water).
has no definite volume or shape (like water vapor or steam)
A change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition. For example, liquids undergo phases changes as a result of heating and cooling. Water becomes a solid when frozen and then a liquid when it melts.
are the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element. Atoms of the same element have the same number of protons in their nucleci.
are the building blocks of matter. They are collections of tiny bits of electricity, which we call protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons reside in the nucleus, or sollid center, or an atom. Electrons, the lightest subatomic particles, known, orbit the outer portion of an atom.
Basic Structure of an Atom
Electrons are the smallest of the three particles that make up atoms. Electrons are found in shells or orbitals that surround the nucleus of an atom. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus. They group together in the center of the atom
are positively charged particles found within atomic nuclei.
is a negatively charged subatomic particle. It can be either free (not attached to any atom), or bound to the nucleus of an atom.
are uncharged particles found within atomic nuclei.
The Periodic Table
What is energy?
Energy makes change possible. It moves cars along the road and boats through the water. It bakes a cake in the oven, keeps ice frozen in the freezer, and lights our homes.
Scientists define energy as the ability to do work. Modern civilization is possible because we have learned how to change energy from one form to another and then use it to do work for us.
There are many forms of energy, but they can all be put into two categories:
1) Potential (stored) energy - is stored energy and the energy of position
2) Kinetic (working) energy - is the motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects.
Energy is the ability to do work
Energy comes in different forms:
1) Heat (thermal)
2) Light (radiant)
3) Motion (kinetic)
6) Nuclear energy
Chemical energy (a form of Potential energy)
is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Batteries, biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. Chemical energy is converted to thermal energy when we burn wood in a fireplace or burn gasoline in a car's engine.
Mechanical energy (a form of Potential energy)
is energy stored in objects by tension. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy.
Nuclear energy (a form of Potential energy)
is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom—the energy that holds the nucleus together. Large amounts of energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart.
Gravitational energy (a form of Potential energy)
is energy stored in an object's height. The higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored. When you ride a bicycle down a steep hill and pick up speed, the gravitational energy is being converted to motion energy. Hydropower is another example of gravitational energy, where the dam piles up water from a river into a reservoir.
Radiant energy (a form of Kinetic energy)
is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Sunshine is radiant energy, which provides the fuel and warmth that make life on earth possible.
Thermal energy (a form of Kinetic energy)
or heat, is the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances. As an object is heated up, its atoms and molecules move and collide faster. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the earth.
Motion energy (a form of Kinetic energy)
is energy stored in the movement of objects. The faster they move, the more energy is stored. It takes energy to get an object moving, and energy is released when an object slows down. Wind is an example of motion energy. A dramatic example of motion is a car crash, when the car comes to a total stop and releases all its motion energy at once in an uncontrolled instant.
Sound (a form of Kinetic energy)
is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate. The energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Typically, the energy in sound is far less than other forms of energy.
Electrical energy (a form of Kinetic energy)
is delivered by tiny charged particles called electrons, typically moving through a wire. Lightning is an example of electrical energy in nature.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
FTCE Language Arts & Reading
FTCE - Amendments
FTCE Subject Area - Science
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