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multicellular, autotrophic, cell walls with cellulose and eukaryotic

What are the 4 characteristics of all plants?

Green algae (plant-like protist)

What did plants evolve from?

In chloroplasts of leaves

Where does photosynthesis occur in plants?

CO2 (carbon dioxide) + H2O (water) + light yields C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2 (oxygen)

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2 (oxygen) yields CO2 (carbon dioxide) + H2O (water) + ATP

What is the equation for cellular respiration?


Do plants undergo cellular respiration, photosynthesis or both?


Useable energy for all organisms

Mosses, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms

What is the order that plants evolved (simplest to complex)?


What is the only nonvascular plant?

They cannot grow tall because they don't have tissues to transport water and nutrients.

What is a characteristic of nonvascular plants?

Ferns, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

What are the 3 groups of vascular plants?

Vascular tissue

tissue in plants that helps transport water and nutrients throughout the plant


vascular tissue that transports water


vascular tissue that transports food or nutrients


structure that anchors plants and absorbs water and minerals


structure that supports the plant

Mosses and ferns

What are the 2 groups of seedless plants?

Gymnosperms and angiosperms

What are the 2 groups of seed plants?


What do seedless plants need in order to reproduce?

Provides protection for developing embryo

What is the advantage of seeds?


Cone-bearing plants


How is pollination achieved in gymnosperms?


Flowering plants


What are the leaves of gymnosperms called?


Where are the seeds located in gymnosperms?


What are the seeds located in for angiosperms?

Stamen - A

What is the male reproductive part of a flower called and what letter represents it in the diagram?

Anther - B and filament - C

What 2 parts make up the stamen and what letters represent them in the diagram?

Produces pollen

What is the function of the anther?

Pistil - H

What is the female reproductive structure and what letter represents it in the diagram?

Stigma - D

What female part of the flower does the pollen first land and what letter represents this part in the diagram?

Ovary - F

What structure becomes a fruit after the eggs are fertilized?

Ovules (eggs) - G

What structure becomes seeds after they are fertilized?

Petals - I

What structure attracts pollinators?


You find a plant that has parallel veins in the leaves, fibrous roots, vascular bundles scattered, and 6 petals. Is this a monocot or dicot?


You find a plant that has branching veins in the leaves, a taproot, vascular bundes in a ring and 10 petals. Is this a monocot or dicot?


Seed leaf of a plant

when pollen fertilizes the ovules

When does pollination occur in plants?

Sexual reproduction because there is mixing of pollen and egg.

When a plant self-pollinates, is this sexual or asexual reproduction?

Self pollination

Pollen from a plant fertilizes the eggs of the same plant

Cross pollination

Pollen from a plant fertlizes the eggs of a different plant

Water, wind, animals

What are 3 ways seeds are dispersed?


What are seeds dispersed by animals often contained in?

Temperature and moisture (rain)

What are 2 environmental factors that will cause a seed to come out of dormancy?

Cuticle - A

Waxy covering on the top and underside of a leaf


What is structure B?

Palisades mesophyll - C

Where does the most photosynthesis occur in a leaf?

Spongy mesophyll - G

Layer inside a leaf that has spaces for gasses to flow?

Vascular bundle (xylem & phloem)

What is structure D?

Guard Cells - F

Which structure controls the opening and closing of the stoma?

Stoma - E

What structure is the opening for gas exhange?

Carbon dioxide

What gas enters the leaf through the stoma?


What gas exits the leaf through the stoma?

Open to allow water to exit through the stoma

If there is too much rain, do the guard cells open or close the stoma?


Plants response to an external stimulus

positive tropism

When a plant moves towards the stimulus

negative tropism

When a plant moves away from a stimulus


Growth of plant towards light


direction of plant growth in response to gravity

Positive gravitropism

What type of tropism is it when plants roots grown into the soil?


responsible for timing of seasonal activities such flowering by responding to the length of light in a day


What gas speeds up the ripening of fruit?


Monocots and dicots belong to which group of plants?

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