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Test #2 Flash Cards - Evidence for Evolution, "What Darwin Never Knew", & Human Origins
Terms in this set (64)
How does the mammalian forearm provide evidence for evolution?
The same arrangement of the bones throughout organisms.
How is a fossil formed?
When a plant or animal dies and finds it's way to water and sinks under the sediments at the bottom to prevent decay (no oxygen) and the bones are replaced by a MINERAL CAST replica compressed until it is rock.
Four types of evidence for evolution derived from fossils?
- Early is simple with more complex forms appearing later
- Youngest fossils are most similar to living species
- Evolutionary change within lineages
- Evidence for splitting
How do Trilobites fossils show gradual change?
Ribs are lost over time in fossil evidence. (Common fossil, easy to see change over time)
What is the Tiktaalik roseae?
Characteristics of fish and amphibians (lobe finned fish & tetrapods), flat head, neck, breaths above the surface, & bony fins.
What three things do fossils teach us about evoloution?
• Confirm many predictions of:
- Gradual change
- Transitional forms
• Transitional forms occur where they should
• Change involves remodeling the old into the new
What is a palimpsest?
Old animal skin used as a recyclable manuscripts.
How are organisms palimpsests of evolutionary history?
Organisms have vestigial traits (a feature of an ancestor species that lost it's usefulness or coopted for another use).
Vestigial traits: Non-human & human examples?
(A train you had then lost due to usefulness)
Non-human: Kiwi's lost wings, penguin swims with wings, ostrich wings have no use.
Human: Appendix, Coccyx (tailbone), Goosebumps.
Atavistic traits: Non-human & human examples?
(reappearance of an ancestral trait in an exact way)
Non-human: Snake legs, horse toes, whales & dolphins sometimes are born with legs from pelvic bone.
Human: Birth with tail (coccygeal projection)
What is Biogeography?
The study of the distribution of species on earth.
How do continental and oceanic islands differ?
Continental: was separated from the main land
Oceanic: were never connected to main land; rose up from the sea floor (missing many native species to its area).
What is missing from Oceanic islands?
Land mammals, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fish.
Who is Raymond Dart?
Discovered the first australopithecine ever in 1924.
What is the Scopes Monkey Trial?
1925-in Dayton TN when a biology teacher violated the TN law and taught evolution so he was put on trial, Scopes was found guilty.
Who is Eugene Dubios? What did he find?
Found the "Java Man" - a primitive species of man (homo errectus)
What does hominin mean?
All species of the "human" side of our family tree after the split from the branch that became chimpanzees.
In what ways have humans diverged from apes?
Walk upright, 3x the brain size, flexible thumbs, little hair, bipedal, smaller & blunter canines, parabolic (curved) dental formation.
What predictions can we make regarding human evolution?
5-7 MYA, fossils will look apelike and humanlike, larger brains in more recent fossils, canines shrink, jaw rounds, & grow upright.
What are the caveats to consider in regards to examining the hominin fossil record?
- Not a continuous fossil record
• Many at one time
- Names of ancestral species can't be taken too seriously
What is the earliest hominin?
• Sahelanthropus tchadensis
- Oldest hominin fossil
- Found in 2002 by Michel Brunet
- Chad, Africa - Sahel - Dates to 6-7 mya
What is the FORMEN MAGNUM and what does it tell us?
A large opening in the occipital bone of the cranium. (special to human beings)
When do Australopithecines (southern apes) first appear?
- 4 mya
- Several species
- Many living at the same time
Which hominids are Gracile Australopithecines?
• A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus...
- Mixture of apelike and humanlike traits
- Apelike: chimp-sized brains, skull is apelike
- Humanlike: smaller teeth, intermediate dental arcade
Who is Lucy?
• Australopithecus afarensis
- "Lucy" (3.2 mya)
• 20-30 yrs old • 3.5 ft tall • 60 lbs • Bipedal
What do the footprints at Laetoli tell us?
- 80-ft trail (bipedal)
- 3.6 mya
- Sexual dimorphism
What is sexual dimorphism?
Gender-specific differences in body shape.
What was the first major development in the evolution of hominins?
Bigger brains (600 cc) & bipedal.
Which hominin first made and used tools?
• Homo habilis
- Making and using tools
• the Oldowan Tradition
- 2.5 mya to 1.4 may, Tanzania and Kenya [Olduvai Gorge], Large brains, Small teeth.
Distinct characteristics of the Robust Australopithecines?
Large heads, huge cheek/jaw/head muscles, mohawk bone for head muscle to attach to, large black teeth.
Which hominin first left Africa?
Homo Erectus: 1.7 MYA; left Africa, complex tools, control of fire, 100 cc brain size.
When did the Neanderthals go extinct?
28,000 yrs ago (Europe & Middle East)
-large brains (larger then modern humans), compassionate behavior (burials, belongings, etc..), evidence of rituals, hunters and makers.
When did the last of the non-Homo sapiens die off?
200,000 yrs ago.
What is the Multi-regional Hypothesis?
-Theory of evolutionary replacement
-Homo Erectus left Africa and went to Asia/Europe/Australia and evolved into modern humans independently.
What is the Out-Of-Africa Hypothesis?
-Two migrations out of Africa.
-Homo Erectus left to Asia/Europe/Australia and did not evolve into modern humans.
-Homo that stayed in Africa evolves into modern humans then leave to replace descendants in Asia/Europe/Australia.
Who are Homo Floresiensis?
- 2003, Island of Flores, Indonesia, "Hobbits", Date to 13,000 years ago, Ebu gogo stories?
Movement of Continents embedded in underlying plates on the earths surface?
Human-chimp-gorilla split occurred when?
Australopithecines spent a lot of time in trees based on what?
Curved bones of the toe and long arms.
What is the first stone tool industry called?
Oldowan Tool Tradition
First/second members of the genus Homo?
Habilis then Erectus
Darwin was offered a position on the...
Where did Darwin make his first important discovery?
Argentina (fossils of extinct mammals)
What did Darwin discover on the Galapagos Islands?
In 1859, Darwin published...
The Origin of Species
Many genes get translated into...
Humans have how many genes?
What percent of DNA doesn't code for proteins?
A piece of DNA that turns "on" or "off" genes is called a...
The bones of the human inner ear developed from...
Creatures with legs appeared _______ MYA.
The body plan genes are called _____ genes and are found in all complex animals.
There is a __ % difference in the DNA of humans and chimps.
Signature organs of humankind are the_____ &______.
Hand/Thumb & Brain
Humans have a larger space for their brains because...
A mutation in the human jaw muscle allows the skull to keep expanding into adulthood.(V.S. a gorillas jaw muscle)
Evolution is the idea that...
What is a Nested Hierarchy?
Evolution predicts that living things will be related to one another in what scientists refer to as nested hierarchies—rather like nested boxes. Groups of related organisms share suites of similar characteristics and the number of shared traits increases with relatedness.
Population bottlenecks occur when a population's size is reduced for at least one generation.
A change in DNA is called a(n) __________.
The Extinction Thesis
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