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traveling teachers who preached about education, rhetoric and speaking


speaking was a linear process (only the speaker speaks), but the audience is engaged and passive


important to know all sides of an argument


formed 1st Greek school, idea was to know a little about a lot of things rather than a lot about a few things


thought words were manipulative, and thought education should be based on philosophy


3 ways to gain knowledge: experiential (experience), episteme (basic understanding of world), and intermediate (intuition/sense)

Modes of Persuasion

Ethos: credibility
Pathos: emotion
Logos: logic

Artistic Proof vs. Inartistic Proof

A = creative, artistic
I = factual

Virtues of Style

Clarity: understanding, clear
Correctness: accuracy
Propriety: moral and just

Cicero's 5 Parts of Speech

1. Invention: create argument
2. Arrangement: outline
3. Style: word choice
4. Delivery: verbally address speech
5. Memory: ability to recall information


thought close tie b/w civic engagement and public speaking

Linear Model vs. Transactional Model

speaker --->--->---> audience
speaker <---------> audience

Four Types of Fear of Public Speaking

Rejection, Criticism, Judgement, Failure

Communication Apprehension

fear or anxiety associated w/ real or anticipated communication
want a moderate level of anxiety (adrenaline)
Influences: size of audience, unfamiliar w/ audience

Spotlight Syndrome

fear of people looking upon you

Ways to help w/ speech anxiety

positive visualization, deep breaths

Hearing vs. Listening

Hearing: in one ear, out the other
Listening: engaged and active, comprehending

Socratic Questioning

push people through series of questions to ultimately find an eventual answer (push and push)

3 Purposes for Listening

For application, to criticize, and to comprehend

3 Distractions

biological, environmental and hecklers


using emotions to provoke a person towards an argument

4 Types of Non-Listening

pseudolistening, glazing over, ambushing and prejudging

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