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Nonverbal Communication Iba exam 1

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What percentage of communication is nonverbal?
About 67% or 2/3rds, according to Mehrabian.
When studying NVC, do we focus on the receiver or the sender?
The receiver
What does it mean that NVC is omnipresent?
All channels come into play
Phylogenetic primacy
Phylo means family. Came before the spoken language. NVC came first with cavemen and then evolved into verbal, which shows that we are inherently programmed to attend first and foremost to nonverbal cues.
Ontogenetic primacy
The beginning of a member's life within a species. Ex: babies learn first to comm through NVC
Interaction primacy
The nonverbal judgements you make and visual indicators that precede verbal behavior and interaction.
Gives us a "temporal (time) primacy" which gives more importance to NVC than verbal cues
Nonverbal Communication
A dynamic and on-going process whereby senders and receivers exchange messages beyond the words themselves.
Proxemics
Study of how people use space and distance
Territoriality
Study of how people use objects to communicate ownership of a space. Ex: put your bag down at a table to show you're going to sit there.
Kinesics
The study of human movement, like gestures and stride length.
Haptics
Study of touch. Makes Americans uncomfortable
Vocalics (sometimes known as paralanguage)
Study of the voice and everything about the voice besides the words.
Chronemics
How people use time, and what time comms to us
Explain the subsets of communication
Comm is actually a "subset" of behavior, which is a subset of information. (comm is the smallest circle, surrounded by behavior, surrounded by info). Becomes comm when someone assigns meaning to a behavior
Which behaviors don't count as nonverbal comm?
Routine behaviors, because we don't notice it. Ex: blinking and breathing. Breathing would only count unless she were panting and out of breath.
What must happen for a message to qualify as NVC?
A source must be intentionally sending a message and/or a receiver must interpret a message.
What 3 types of messages qualify as comm?
Successful comm, miscommunication, and accidental communication.
What is successful comm?
Behaviors sent intentionally and decoded accurately.
What is miscommunication?
Behaviors sent intentionally and decoded got it wrong.
What is accidental comm?
Behaviors sent without intent, but decoded accurately.
Further characteristics of NVC
non-arbitraty, no symbols, nonlinguistic, typically governed by right brain hemisphere, multimodal, meaning all at once we can process a bunch of different visual info
Ray L. Birdwhistell
Wrote Introduction of Kinesics (1952) (gestures).
Margaret Mead's protégé, the traveled and observed tribal people.
First one to write about observations of nonverbal comm. Comes from blank slate camp.
Edward T. Hall
Clinical psychologist who believed in behaviorism, that all behavior is learned. Later switched over to idea that behavior is genetic.
Paul Ekman
In 1969 he came up with verbal and non- interrelatedness

Ekman followed what Darwin did by travelling the world
wrote Silent Language (1959) (proxemics/personal space). TV show Lie to Me is based off his life.
6 forms of verbal and non-verbal Interrelatedness
NVC operates along with verbal in 6 possible ways: repeating, conflicting, complementing, substituting, accenting/moderating, and regulating
Repeating
Duplicating the message. Ex: saying "time!" and banging the desk to signify time is up.
Conflicting
When confronted with conflicting messages that matter to us, we react with confusion and uncertainty and we try to search for additional info to clarify. Generally we believe the NVC over the V
Complimenting
Opposite of conflicting. Elaborating on a verbal message, helping to clarify and decode messages more accurately. Ex: pointing at the thing you are talking about
Substituting
Used in place of verbal messages. Ex: shaking your head and finger to indicate no.
Accenting and Moderating
amplifying and toning down verbal messages. Ex: how you put your hand on someone, firm or a soft caress can change the message.
Regulating
Our own punctuation marks, we don't know we do it or that anyone else does it. Interactions with others. Ex: looking at someone when you stop talking to indicate it is their turn to talk. Where your body and eyes go, 20% of NVC.
How to improve your own NVC
• Be a competent observer of your environment
• Observe in context to understand
• Learn/recognize universal NV behaviors
• Learn/recognize idiosyncratic NV behaviors
• Establish other's baseline behaviors
• Watch for clusters/multiples of tells
• Look for changes in behavior
• Learn to detect false or misleading NVC clues
• Distinguish between comfort and discomfort signals
• Be subtle
What is the opposite of spontaneous communication?
Symbolic communication
Universality
Means that all humans have this.
Continuity
Means continuity among species. Ex: Dogs pull back their teeth when they're mad and so do humans and cats ect. Continuity among species within regard to emotion.
Duchenne de Boulogne
One of the first people to cut up bodies and study cadavers. Found an old man who had partial face paralysis but used electrodes to zap his muscles into moving. Duchenne took pictures of this and Darwin used some of them.
Theory of Natural Selection (TNS)
In the struggle to survive, certain members of a species will be advantaged over others due to their particular combo of traits. Evolutionary theorists argue that advantageous traits appear with greater frequency.
What did Darwin observe about expressions and why?
What, when, & why expression occurs.
To demonstrate: universality of expressions and their continuity in man and animals.
What is the judgment method?
Studying the signal value of an expression. It is now the most common method for studying the signal value of an expression. Ex: Darwin showed pictures to people taken by Duchenne and asked them which emotion was depicted
Who created the judgment method?
Darwin
What are Darwin's 3 explanitory principles about why certain emotions are associated with certain facial expressions?
1.) Principle of serviceable habits
2.) Principle of antithesis
3.) Principle of the direct action of the nervous system
Principle of serviceable habits
actions that originally had some usefulness would be preserved as signals. Ex: The retraction of the upper lip in a canine, exposing teeth preparatory for biting, was preserved as a display of the size of the weapon that might be used.
Principle of antithesis
it is the opposite of the movements for serviceable habits. Darwin showed that these two principles applied equally to explaining the stance of an aggressive man (serviceable habits) as compared to the helpless man shrugging (antithesis).
Principle of the direct action of the nervous system
For expressions that could not be explained by either of the two other principles.
Sir Francis Galton
Conducted the first twin study in 1869.
Coined the phrase "nature vs. nurture"
He believed there was a superior race and we should keep the weak ones from reproducing (sort of a genetic determinism idea)
When did the "blank slate" idea become popular?
After the Holocaust, "genetic determinism" was considered racist, which resulted in a swing to the "blank slate" idea through the 1960's-early 70's.
Biological determinism
The idea that you were predetermined based on your biology to see if you were worthwhile in society.
David Matsumoto
Worked with Ekman. Did the study with Olympic athletes. Studies genetic link and across cultures
What do identical twins share about 50% of due to genetics?
IQ, Bi-polar disease, Schizophrenia, religious interests, attitudes, values, reading ability, sociability, alcoholism, and delinquency.
Evidence from twin studies
University of MN twins raised apart since 1979 have studied over 100 sets of those raised apart.
These appear to be genetically based on: Personality, occupational interests, social attitudes, gestures
Similarities and differences between humans and primates
Similarities: caring for children, group behavior, maintaining relationships, and expressing emotions, especially facial expressions of anger.
Differences: humans have "referential" gestures, where primates have none. Referential gesture means using a gesture to refer to an abstract thing that's not there. Humans also have more facial blends of expressions
What are the 3 sources of nonverbal behavior Ekman discovered?
1.) Genetic
2.) Learned: experience that varies with culture, class, family, or individual
3.) Genetic & Learned combo: experience common to all members of the species
Margaret Mead
Rejected subjective and used scientific measures. Said behavior is determined primarily by factors in environment. Behavior is learned. Nurture, not nature.
Joe Navvaro
Big on the study of body language. Touching the neck shows concern
Nonverbal Immediacy
Idea came from Albert Mehrabian. It is "perceived distance" or closeness. What you do to make people feel closer to you.
People are drawn toward people they like, evaluate higher, and prefer, and avoid or move away from things they dislike, evaluate negatively, or do not prefer
Idea of promoting affiliation, affection, warmth. We do this through: Touch, proximity, gestures, body positions, direct body orientation, forward lean
Invisible gorilla study
Conducted by Chabris & Simons to see how people attend to their visual field to judge their nonverbal awareness. Half the people did not see the monkey.
Inattention blindness
when people devote attention to a particular aspect of their visual world, they tend to not notice unexpected things, even when they appear right where they are looking. We can look for a full second and still not notice
change blindness
What happens after we see something and it changes, we often miss large changes that happen in our field of vision. Ex: two men switched places and no one noticed
What is nonverbal sending ability?
The ability to convey nonV messages to others
Particularly the sending of emotional messages is a critical skill for social success
Which gender is better at decoding nonverbal cues?
Females, particularly facial expressions. Males are good at detecting anger though
What does PONS stand for and who created it?
Profile of nonverbal sensitivity, by Robert Rosenthal. It is a standardized test of decoding the face/body/voice.
What test did Hogins & Koestner do in 1993?
Temperament and early parenting (at age 5) and sensitivity to nonverbal cues (at age 31 - PONS).
Discovered factors that predicted good adult decoding skill.
Which three factors predicted good adult decoding skills? (Hogins & Koestner)
o Easy child temperament (largest percentage)
o Parental harmony
o Rather stern father figure
o No sex differences were found
What does it mean to have a tactic knowledge of NVC?
People process NV cues largely unconsciously, without much awareness of which cues they rely on.
Tacit: understood without being expressed directly (or consciously aware of it)
What is the correlation between cognitive ability and nonverbal sensitivity?
Small positive correlation between general cognitive ability and NV sensitivity.
What did Rosenthal's time exposure PONS test prove?
Robert Rosenthal's PONS (Profile of NV Sensitivity) found:
Time 1/24th second > 3/24th second > 2 seconds did increase accuracy, but it caps out at 2 seconds. Time 2 sec. > 5 minutes did not increase accuracy.
How does your mood affect how well you cant detect nonverbals?
The more negative your mood, the less likely you can accurately detect. Sad moods generally reduce accuracy and positive moods help.
How does your cognitive load affect how you detect nonverbals?
Social anxiety reduces encoding and decoding
Processing capacity is reduced due to self-focus.
What did John Gottman study about married couples arguing?
• Women are better encoders than men
• Men in happier marriages sent clearer facial messages
• Research: men low in marital happiness are more accurate in decoding NVC of an unknown married woman than their own spouse.
What did Clifford Nass study?
cognitive load
How might "multitasking" impact decoding ability?
Are people who are high multi-taskers better at decoding?
o Tested: Irrelevant info, Organizing memories, and Switching between tasks
o Found: Multitaskers can't filter out what's not relevant, which causes a slowing down by irrelevant info