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Collopy HIST 105 Exam 1
Terms in this set (113)
What things made the English settlers' first winter in America especially difficult?
Why did the English feel the need to have allies in the New World?
Pilgrims completely alone & thousands of miles away from family and friends
Why did the Wampanoag feel they needed allies?
Fear of rival tribes and attacks
Expertise of commentators in film?
Historians, Anthropologists, Wampanoags, Absentee Pequot
What was the name of the larger confederation to which the Wampanoag people belonged?
Algonquian Confederation-The People of the First Light
Where were American Indian populations concentrated?
How did the epidemic of 1617-1619 affect the relationship of the Wampanoag people with the Narragansett people?
Narrangansett people performed series of raids, everyone was sick at once and the survivors were deeply affected and vulnerable
Why'd did the Pilgrims come to the New World? What did they discover when arriving? How did they interpret what they discovered?
-Came for religious views/reasons
-Found fallen houses, human bones and destroyed Wampanoag village
-Saw it as God clearing way for His chosen people
What significance did the Wamp people attach to the Europeans bringing women and children with them to the New World?
Showed they weren't planning to make trouble, not a threat, women & children were sick/starving
How were the Wamp people and the Europeans able to communicate?
-Tisquantam/squantum/squanto, a Wamp, could speak a little english because he had earlier been kidnapped for slavery and then returned
What kind of trade relationship developed between the Wamp people and the Europeans?
-Joyous, reciprocal alliance, respectful
-Wamp planted corn
-Would both help one another if attacked
Besides being traders themselves, what other trading function did the Wampanoag people perform?
Facilitators of trade between English and other tribes
What conclusions might one draw about the relationship between Massasoit and Edward Winslow?
In what ways did the Europeans become like the Indians? In what was did the Indians become like the Europeans?
-Used Indian words, learned indian ways, dressed like indians
-Wear english clothes, build english homes, speak some english
What was the Europeans understanding of Wampum?
Spiritual, no one would break an agreement made with it, saw as currency by English
What effect did they Europeans religion have on their New World settlement? What was the significance of the city upon a hill that John Winthrop proposed?
Eyes of all people were upon them, believed they were owed land due to superiority
Who was Metacom/Meacomet and what is his significance in the story of European settlement in the New World?
-Powerful and wealthy, not afraid to show it
-heir to Wampanoag
Why were praying towns est?
Indians converted to Christianity were given physical security
What was the thing that English wanted most from American indians?
Who was Josiah Winslow? What was his title? How might one characterize his relationship with Philip?
-Chief of Plymouth Colony
-Untrustworthy, unequal relationship
What was King Phillip's War?
-Major war between Native Americans and English
-Native Americans winning at first
-Many tribes involved, including Narragansett
What events seemed to force Metacoms hand in the 1670s?
Indians killed on Indian land/betrayal
During the war who allied with British against Philips forces?
How many Brit citizens perished in war? How many town/villiages burned?
2,000, 25 colonies
After war, what happened to Philips son?
locked in jail in Plymouth Colony
letter Abigail Adams wrote
article about Abigails letters, book about her letters
Term Gung Ho which means to work together was said by who?
Who was in charge of nine principles of war & objective is to excel in this course?
Carl von Clausewitz
Book: The History of the Formation of the Constitution of the US
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the US
Charles Austin Beard
-Aim of history is to know elements of present by understanding what came into present from past
-Americans become Americans on the frontier
Frederick Jackson Turner
Social, Economic, Political and Cultural analysis
Where are the Centers?
Where are Peripheries?
Americas-Colonial Centers & Frontiers
Centers make _____ decisions, which peripheries make ___ decisions.
What is required of an empire?
-Manage, support and defend (won't succeed if don't do this)
-Export excess production
-Import hard currency (have to have navy and army)
-Fund standing military forces
Mercantilism (applies to imperial powers)
Where did the American Indigenous people travel to start settling?
South and east
-2 major empires of spain become one nation
-If not Catholic get out (Muslims and jews out or get converted)
-Isabella and Ferdinand
traveled south around africa, eastward to india and china, modern-day indonesia
-Portugal got brazil
-Alexander VI is the pope/head of roman catholic church
Treaty of Tordesillas
Conquistador that conquers Aztecs
Conquistador that conquers Incas
What was used to over come Aztecs and Incas?
-Native allies or internal strife
NOT ENGLISH ALLIES
Conquistadors go where?
All the way North/Midwest (Kansas/Nebraska)
Where was sugar mostly found?
What are slaves absolutely needed for?
-Involved in encomienda system and was catholic
-Became priest, says Indians/new spain not acting like christians and says they are wrong/bad and need to change
-Spanish priest who condemned spanish explorers' cruel treatment of indigenous people
Bartolome de las Casas
England has shortage of ___, but a surplus of ___.
North American (England's American colonies) has shortage of ___ , but surplus of___.
-Export women cloth
-evangelical protestanism (convert natives, defeat spanish catholicism)
-best known for being proponent of empire who believe england was falling behind other european nations by not establishing colonies in the new world
Established geographical areas but didn't last
Newfoundland and Roanoke Island
Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, etc.
-Association of tribes
-Sustained by early colonists
-Attempts to dislodge English
-British had firearms (metal things/knives) which Native Americans didn't have
-Spanish had metals, military superiority and slave labor
-Charter to settle Maryland
-starts challenging political, economical and social norms of the time
-Seperation of church and state
-Rhode island because kicked out of MA/banished
Most likely to settle in North Amer?
English to acquire land
Where were the Dutch?
New Amsterdam/New York
Inner light- discover faith in selves
most christian like because of way treated native amers-signed treaties for rights of ppl and negotiated land
no social distinctions
renounced force: pacifists
didn't trade whiskey with native americans
Who did Penn's immigrants consist of?
Germans and Scots-Irish
English Royal Charter
Immigrants from Virginia and Barbados/caribbean
Native american slave trade
naval, beef, tobacco
Georgia is a border:
BT ____ & ____. geography
BT ___&___. nations
BT ___&___. religion
-carolinas and florida
-spanish and english
-protestants and roman catholics
Who had praying villiages?
Chesapeake had a _____ population while New England had a ____ population.
Why was chesapeakes pop decreasing?
-higher level of illness/mortality (men killed by diseases and women during childbirth and illness)
New England was more habitual/friendly to people because less disease and germs
Rice and indigo produced mostly in
Where were the English?
New england, chesapeake, carolina, georgia
Where were the French?
st. lawerence river, great lakes, mississippi river, new orleans, ohio river valley
Where were the Spanish?
-Florida (today mexico, southern cali, arizona, new mexico and southwest)
An element of exclusivity
-Planter Nathanial Bacon
-Royal Governor Sir William Berkeley: taxes, power, cronyism, protection of settlers (warfare on frontiers)
-Demand for land (movement westward, land more desirable-whites want more): new settlers, former indentured servants
-extirpation of indians: wants to wipe them out Will B. (rebel lasted about a yr)
-King james II overthrown bc catholic and disliked economic principles
-daughter Mary was protestant and william of orange was protestant: exercising more control over colonies
-governor appointed by crown
-black, white and red
-shifting westward ***
-middle ground relationship between american colonies & indians
-driven from east coast by violence and disease
-bt app mountains and mississippi river
Growth for spanish?
Little growth but some interracial marriage between the spanish and indigenous people
-Human capacity to acquire knowledge
-Value of scientific investigation
-Reason, liberty and equality
Where were John Locke and Benjamin Franklin from and involved in?
-BF: British N. America/US
-low percentage of church attendence
-half way convenient (other ppl vouch for you)
-individual responsibility for ones conversion (if can live life by bible, dont really need elders of church)
-George Whitefield (english anglican)-church of england
-against establishments power
"sinners in the hands of an angry God", contributes to American Revolution, Enlightenment and GA
What were some results of the GA?
-Religious pluralism: ppl going to diff churches that better fit them
-Diversity over uniformity
-Seperations of church and state reinforced
-reduced church influence in education
-congregationalists vs anglicans
-sense of individual worth/value
-Present day Pittsburgh
-George Washington (British) called to attack but defeated by French and Indian alliance
-Albany Plan/colonial union= failed
-Iroquois alliance (5 nations and native americans who were working both ends w/ english and french) = failed
Fort Duquesne 1754
-General Edward Braddock
-900 French, Canadians and Indians
-1850 British and Virginians
-French and Indian victory
Fort Duquesne 1755
What do colonies get out of all of their fighting?
Proclamation of 1763
-Huge part of beginning of American Revolution
-King says Amer Indians can't go past Appalachian mtns
-King says manage (amer indians) inferior
Proc of 1763
Who gave these ideas?
-Rights (ppl have natural rights)
-Consent of ppl: they will determine what kind of gov nation will have
Who were the paxton boys?
-small, slight massacre of christian women and children (indians)
-Pay tax for stamp for newspapers, legal documents, academic diplomas
-taxation needs to be base by own consent
Virginas reaction to stamp act
-Andrew oliver enforces stamp act but bad at giving stamps so colonists attack his office and house
-Lt gov thomas hutchinson gets his house attacked too
Massachusetts reaction to stamp act
-sends troops out of boston
-has soldiers arrested for boston massacre
gov thomas hutchinson
-true to law
-has the colonists acquitted "self defense" in boston massacre
-part of sons of liberty
-praised action of colonists in Boston tea party and said they have to demonstrate their unhappiness
-committees of correspondence
-true catholic owns alliances to king
Who was at 1st cont congress?
Richard Henry Lee
-shots fired 1775
-seize colonial armaments & British found out about this
-firefight, deaths among Brits and colonists
-Brits had to retire/defeated
Battle of Lexington and Concord
-I am not a virginian, but and American
-house of congress delegate
-in charge of continental army
-second cont congress may of 1775
Common sense pamphlet written by
What religion were people in Plymouth colony?
What religion in Massachusetts Bay colony?
What religion in New England?
What religion in Maryland?
What religion in Virginia?
-boycott british goods
-merchants were threatened
-women homespun fabric, avoided merchants and avoided items taxed by parliament
reactions of colonies and women to stamp act
Look over quizzes 1-5
Know answer choices
Look over dower and bushnell/green essay
Know main arguments and questions from quizzes
Which statements are true in the period in which we are studying?
1) An early demonstration of the efficacy of slave based plantation agriculture was the production of sugar on Madeira, an island off northwest coast of Africa.
2) After indigenous Asian people crossed land bridge to America, they generally migrated southward and eastward.
In ___, slavery rapidly increased due to expansion of plantation agriculture producing rice and indigo.
-instrumental in establishing plymouth colony
-developed close relationship with wamp leader massasoit
in french and indian war, iroquois eventually sided with england after British navy cut off frances support to iroquois.
Slaves in north least likely to be employed as
slave hands in plantation agriculture
Kings and queens value natural rights of citizens and monarchy supported enlightenment.
British american colonial manufacturers and shippers welcomed navigation acts because these new laws expanded commercial opportunities BT colonies and non british nations.
After french and indian war, in response to british american colonists complaints over the practice of trying violations of trade acts in vice-admirality courts, british board of trade abolished these courts.
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