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Biopsychology - AQA AS and A2
Terms in this set (26)
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord. Origin of all complex commands and decisions.
The centre of all conscious awareness.
An extension of the brain. It is responsible for reflex actions and passes messages to and from the brain and connects nerves to the peripheral nervous system.
Peripheral Nervous System
Transmits messages, via neurons, to and from the central nervous system. It is sub-divided into the autonomic and somatic nervous system.
Autonomic Nervous System
Governs vital functions such as breathing and heart rate. It controls things you don't need tot think about. It is further sub-divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls muscle movement and receives information from sensory receptors.
Sympathetic Nervous System
This kicks in when something UNEXPECTED happens. Heart rate and breathing rate increase, pupils dilate, rectum contracts, digestion and saliva production are inhibited.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
This comes into operation as you return to your resting state. Heart rate and breathing rate decrease, pupils contract, rectum relaxes and digestion are saliva production start up again.
Nerve cells in the brain which process and transmit information in the form of electrical currents.
Contains the nucleus.
Extend from the cell body, carry electrical impulses TOWARDS the cell body from other neurons.
Extension of the neuron, carry electrical impulses AWAY from the cell body.
Fatty substance, covers the axon, main purpose is to increase the speed at which impulses propagate.
Nodes of Ranvier
Breaks in the myelin sheath. Action potentials travelling down the axon 'jump' from node to node, increasing the speed of transmission.
Long dendrites and short axon. They conduct impulses to the spinal cord.
Short dendrites and long or short axon. They interconnect the sensory neuron with the appropriate motor neuron. (messenger).
Short dendrites and long axons. They conduct impulses to an effector (muscle or gland).
Serotonin causes the neuron that receives it to have a slight negative charge, which results in the neuron being less likely to fire.
Adrenaline causes the neuron that receives it to have a slight positive charge, which results in the neuron being more likely to fire.
Works alongside the nervous system to control vital functions in the body. It acts much more slowly than the nervous system, but it has more powerful and widespread effects.
Secreted into the bloodstream and affect any cell in the body that has a receptor for that hormone. They are VERY POWERFUL but WEAR OFF QUICKLY.
Released when going into the sympathetic state. It changes heart rate and dilates the pupils and air passages. It is stored in the adrenal gland.
Controls the release of hormones from all the other endocrine glands in the body.
Produces the hormone thyroxine which increases heart rate and affects cells throughout the body by increasing the metabolic rate. This in turn affects growth rates.
Different parts of the brain are associated with different parts of the body and perform different tasks. Therefore, if a certain area becomes damaged, the function will also be affected.
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