Son of Suleymon the Magnificent, nicknamed "Sot" because he was a wino, wrote poetry and enjoyed the pleasures of Sultan more than work that came along with it
sultan (1808- 1839), was convinced to launch reform program, wanted to be seen as restoration and not violent reform. Had conflict with Janissaries so he massacred them.
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
Nationalistic young men who were angry that the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Balkans and demanded the removal of the government.
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria. (236)
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
Descendents of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup ub 1952
a manmade waterway connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, which was opened in 1869
The last Imam for the Twelvers, believe that he disappeared but will return to save them
Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defated by British General Kitchener in 1598
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on Chian's south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. (p. 687)
Al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh
Starts the Islamic reform movement; wants to return to pure early islam with a reason approached to change
Student of Muhammad Abduh; led revolt in 1882 against Turkish influence in Egyptian army; forced Khedive to call on British army for support
architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria, entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing
Gained formal control of government at the age of 16. Was an intelectual prodigy who mastered classical Chinese, Manchu, and Mongolian at an early age.
Distinguished Chinese official charged with stamping out opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War
Empress (Upheld Confucian tradition), institutes open door policy-where anybody is free to come in or out of China, She fled to Xian when the foreign powers took over in Beijing.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops