Madison, Monroe, and the Industrial/Transportation Revolution
In office: 1809-1817. Political Party: Democratic-Republican. Elected From: Virginia. Vice Presidents: George Clinton and Elbrige Gerry (Both died in office).
British and French Wars
Caused concerns in Us. As a result, the united states stayed neutral and at first continued trade with both countries. Both wanted alliance with US. In 1810 Napolean seized an oppritunity and promised to end Frances trade restrictions against America (France continued to seize and sell US ships). Britatin continued to claim the right to hault American ships.
Made up of congressional members and citizens primarily from the South and the West, wanted war because they wanted t get revenge for British actions. (Arming native americans, etc.)
Henry Clay wanted war for 2 reasons:
1) to move north into fertile forests in southern Canada. 2) Southerners wanted Spanish Florida.
Other reason War Hawks wanted war:
They wanted to increase America's power, wanted respect from British; stop seizing ships.
Two Shawnee Brothers
Offered to help the British because they wanted to stop the white movement into Native American land.
Urged all Native Americans to go back to the culture of their ancestors and give up the customs of white invaders. (Strongly religious, good speaking skills)
Built a confederation of Native Americans in attempt to get rid of white invaders. Belived that with help from British in Canada they would stop whites from entering their land.
Battle of Tippecanoe 1811
Harrison attacked Tecumseh in Prophetstown on the Tippecanoe river. Prophets forces fled to retreat, huge victory for Harrison.
War of 1812
Also known as Mr. Madison's War. Defined his presidency. "We have met the enemy and they are ours" White house burned, got its name.
What was James Madison's position in the war?
He was for the war, and was the first president to ask congress to make a declaration of war.
How did Congress get recruits for the war?
Congress authorized the expansion of the army to 35,000 men. Promised the men land grants.
How did the war affect the economies of the government?
American built factories. Madison asked Congress for a new bank to support the war.
Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry
Defeated British and opened Canadian border for invasion by American forces. (Lake Eeire commander)
Battle of the Thames
October 5, 1813. Led by Harrison. Tecumseh was killed in this battle, US win.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
MArch 27, 1814. Treaty of Fort Jackson surrendered Creek land to the US government. Jackson and Harrison led battle.
What happened in Europe in 1814? How did this affect the war in North America?
Napolean is defeated and british turns attention on US. British occupy Washington DC burning the white house. Lowest point in the war for US.
What events led to the President's Mansion getting the name "That White House"?
White paint was used to cover up burn marks. (Large amount of rain saved the white house)
Francis Scott Key
Wrote the Star Spangled Banner. Prisoner in the British ship watching attack on Ft. McHenry.
Hartford Convention, December 1814
New England federalists were unhappy with being invlolved in the war. Met to discuss secession from the US. Ultimately proposed amments to the constituioin. Federalis Disbanded.
Battle of New Orleans, January 1815
Final major battle (Jackson). Happened after the treaty, and went on during HArtford Convention.
Treaty of Ghent (belgium), December 24, 1814
Ended war of 1812. Nothing changed.
What were some reasons there were beileved to be good that came from the outcome of the war?
1) Entrapremeurs built factories in the US increasing economy's independance. 2) Federalist party GONEE! 3) Star Spangled Banner. 4) White House named. 5) Era of Good Feelings.
In Office: 1817-1825. Political Party: Democratic-Republican. Elected from: Virginia. Vice President: Daniel D. Tompkins.
National unity; a sence of pride and interest in ones country.
The Era of Good Feelings
The reign of he Democratic Republicans as the single party in a unified nation.
Shift in veiws of the federa government:
From Jeffersonian to Hamiltonian. (jeffersonian-Agrarianism, Narrow Construction of the Constitution, States Rights) (Hamiltonian- Industrialism, Broad Constuction of Constitution, Nationalism)
The American System
By Henry Clay. He caleed for federal aid for internal improvments (roads, canals, bridges). Fianaced by 1) the protective tariff. 2) The Bank of the US.
The Missouri Compromise
Settled a slavery dispute and avoided a threat to national unity. Why did it come about? Missouri and maine were going to be admited as states and the south wanted slaves states and the north wanted slave-free.
How did congress "solve" the problem of Missouri and Maine?
1) they allowed missouri to enter as slave state. 2) they provided for maine to enter as a slave free state.
The Monroe Doctrine
Written by John Quincy Adams.
Why was the Monroe Doctrine needed?
It recognized the independence of latin American colonies and welcomed trade with them.
What role did Great Britain play?
They feared trade would be disrupt.
What did Monroe "say" that set a foreign policy that is still part of our government's policies today?
"Don't colonize here, we won't colonize there"
Why did the US invade florida in 1818?
Spain owned florida but the US thought west flordia was part of the Louisiana purchase. Jackson invades flirida to stop native american raids.
Adams-Onis Treaty (1821)
Spain didn't want florida anymore because of the 1812 invasion. Spain have eat florida to the US and abandoned all claims to west florida, US gave up claims to TExas and paid 5 million dollars. Sabine become border.
Began in America in 1815 as a result of rebublican policies during the war of 1812. 1790:
Samuel Slater 1790
Started the textile industry in the US after memorizing the plans on Richard Arkwrights water frame, a spinning machine with 100 spindles of thread run by water power.
Eli Whitney 1798
Created the technique of interchangable parts, the most dynamic idea in the new factory system of the united states. He proved his idea to Congress by assembling a rifle precision made parts during a Congressional meeting.
The Cotton Gin
Invented by Whitney. This invention rescued the dting cotton industry and increased he need for slaves in the South because the invention made cotton a viable commodity.
The Transportation Revolution
Came about because of the idustrial revolution and Clay's American system
Engineer who invented the steamboat
Cumberland National Road
Tied together east with west
Canal that created water route from the Atlantic ocean to great lakes.
Only in the northeast and north contral regions, connected places canals couldnt reach.
What role did Noah Webster play in the cause of Nationalism?
A school teacher who changed british spelling and pronunciation to American. Published the 1st American dictionary, discouraged sectionalism.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
State of maryland agreed to impose a tax on the second Bank of the united states, which was chartered by congress. James McCoulloch refused the tax which was taken into the supreme court. Ruling: Unconstitutional to tax the bank.
Gibbon's vs. Ogden.
Ogden had monopoly in steamboats. Sued Gibbons for using his steamboat and not having a license. Ruling: Unconstitutional.
Supreme court judge.
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