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18 terms

Biology 112 Lab 7

STUDY
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saprophytic
fungi that live on dead organic matter
• Most fungi fall into this category
parasitic
fungi that obtain food and nutrients from other organisms; the other organism is harmed in this process.
hyphae
cytoplasmic filaments
Chytridiomycetes
• Only fungal group that have developmental stages with Flagellated zoospores and gametes help these fungi survive in their moist environment.
• Parasitic or saprophytic lifestyle
• Only fungi with true alternation of generations
• Inhabit moist or aquatic environments
Zygomycetes
Bread Molds
• This group is characterized by the zygosporangium (diploid zygote + protective wall).
- product of 2 haploid gametangia (specialized hyphae) merging
• capable of surviving harsh environmental conditions
• forms haploid spores via meiosis
• Most members are saprophytic.
Ascomycetes
The Sac Fungi
• This group includes yeasts, truffles, and many molds.
• Are considered macro fungi
- Produce distinctive fruiting bodies whose function is to form and disperse sexual spores.
mass of hyphae
mycelium --> feeding structure
ectotrophic mycorrhizae
enmesh around the outer cortex of the root (Basidiomycota or Ascomycota)
Endotrophic mycorrhizae
, penetrate into the root cells
Glomeromycetes
• Distinguished by lack of sexual structures and hyphae morphology
• Hyphae digest small areas of the plant cell wall and enter root cells
- The tip of the hyphae branch to form dense clusters (arbuscles) which function in nutrient transfer between the fungus and the plant
The Sac Fungi
• This group includes yeasts, truffles, and many molds.
• Are considered macro fungi
- Produce distinctive fruiting bodies whose function is to form and disperse sexual spores.
Parasitic Sac Fungi
• Powdery mildew
• Two types of hyphae
- Conidiophores: involved in asexual reproduction
• 1 nucleus per cell (septate)
• Mitosis results in chains of conidia
being produced at the tips of the conidiophores.
Ascus
fruiting body involved in sexual reproduction
• Produces ascospores
The Imperfect Sac Fungi
• Lack sexual structures
• Reproduce asexually via conidia and conidiophores
• Include antibiotic producing molds, cheese flavor fungi, and infection-causing molds
Basidiomycetes
This group includes mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts.
• There is no asexual reproduction in this group.
Basidiocarp
the fruiting body (mushroom) formed by intertwined dikaryotic hyphae (formed by the fusion of 2 monokaryotic hyphae
Basidia
microscopic cells in the fruiting body (lining the gills) that produce sexual spores
Basidiospores
sexual spores produced by basidia