fungi that live on dead organic matter • Most fungi fall into this category
fungi that obtain food and nutrients from other organisms; the other organism is harmed in this process.
• Only fungal group that have developmental stages with Flagellated zoospores and gametes help these fungi survive in their moist environment. • Parasitic or saprophytic lifestyle • Only fungi with true alternation of generations • Inhabit moist or aquatic environments
Bread Molds • This group is characterized by the zygosporangium (diploid zygote + protective wall). - product of 2 haploid gametangia (specialized hyphae) merging • capable of surviving harsh environmental conditions • forms haploid spores via meiosis • Most members are saprophytic.
The Sac Fungi • This group includes yeasts, truffles, and many molds. • Are considered macro fungi - Produce distinctive fruiting bodies whose function is to form and disperse sexual spores.
mass of hyphae
mycelium --> feeding structure
enmesh around the outer cortex of the root (Basidiomycota or Ascomycota)
, penetrate into the root cells
• Distinguished by lack of sexual structures and hyphae morphology • Hyphae digest small areas of the plant cell wall and enter root cells - The tip of the hyphae branch to form dense clusters (arbuscles) which function in nutrient transfer between the fungus and the plant
The Sac Fungi
• This group includes yeasts, truffles, and many molds. • Are considered macro fungi - Produce distinctive fruiting bodies whose function is to form and disperse sexual spores.
Parasitic Sac Fungi
• Powdery mildew • Two types of hyphae - Conidiophores: involved in asexual reproduction • 1 nucleus per cell (septate) • Mitosis results in chains of conidia being produced at the tips of the conidiophores.
fruiting body involved in sexual reproduction • Produces ascospores
The Imperfect Sac Fungi
• Lack sexual structures • Reproduce asexually via conidia and conidiophores • Include antibiotic producing molds, cheese flavor fungi, and infection-causing molds
This group includes mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts. • There is no asexual reproduction in this group.
the fruiting body (mushroom) formed by intertwined dikaryotic hyphae (formed by the fusion of 2 monokaryotic hyphae
microscopic cells in the fruiting body (lining the gills) that produce sexual spores