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FTCE Reading k-12
Terms in this set (182)
the ability to perform a skill, such as reading words, correctly
an element attached to the beginning or ending of a word
the principle that letters in written words represent sounds in spoken words
a connection drawn between letter-sound patterns in previously learned words and those in novel words to help read the latter.
Learn to understand letters-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce words in isolation.
a term used to describe students who demonstrate low performance in one or more areas related to reading development, such as vocabulary or phonological awareness
the ability to recognize words quickly, effortlessly, and accurately
a collection of stories that matches the instructional level of children, usually seen as the reading textbook in schools
a unit of meaning that can stand alone as a whole word (e.g., friend, pig etc.) Also called a free morpheme
combining individual phonemes to form words or combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, then combining syllables to make words.
a word consisting of the consonant-consonant-vowel-consonant
TAKES PLACE WHEN A GROUP OF STUDENTS OR THE WHOLE CLASS READS OUT LOUD.
the ability to understand something
constists of two or more consonants sonded together in such a way that each is heard- like the blend of b and l in the word blend.
Two consonants that represent one speech sound. (Examples: ch, sh, th)
all alphabet letters other than vowels
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
the words and sentences occurring before and after an unknown word that provide hints about its meaning
The fifth and final stage of developmental spelling in which spellers develop over years of word study and writing. Correct spelling can be categorized by instruction levels. For example, correct spelling for a corpus. . . words that can be spelled by the average fourth grader would be fourth grade level correct spelling. Place the word in this category if it is listed correctly.
Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common goal and help one another learn.
Peer tutoring in which older students work with younger students.
a word consisting of consonant-vowel-consonant
a word consisting of the consonant-vowel-consonant-consonant pattern
a word consisting of a consonant-vowel-consonant-silent e pattern
text in which most of the words are made up of sound-letter relationships that have been taught, but that contain enough high-frequency irregular, and story words to make them sound natural.
interpretation of the language and symbols sent by the source through a channel
Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form.
a learning disability that results in difficulty reading and writing
An instructional strategy that emphasizes group instruction . The instruction offered should include a great deal of teacher-student interactivity.
a type of question where the answer is in the text
(n.) spoken or written with ease, particularly as related to a language; (adj.) easy and graceful; flowing
Frustration level text
-For children reading at level L or higher, frustration is determined when a child can read with 98% or better accuracy but has unsatisfactory comprehension.
A category or type of literature (or of art, music, etc.) characterized by a particular form, style, or content.
text for which students of a given grade should have the necessary comprehension, vocabulary, and word recognition skills to read independently
The individual letter or sequence of written symbols ( /a/, /b/, /c/) & the multiletter units (/ch/, /sh/, /th/) that are used to represent a single phoneme.
a tool that helps to organize ideas and can be used to visually illustrate ideas
KNOWLEDE ABOUT SPECIFIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GRAPHEMS AND PHONEMS.
teacher explains the purpose for reading a particular text as well as the structure for how to respond to what is read.
We name the question that links premises and conclusion together in the author's thinking. Conclusions are answers to the implicit question.
text for which the reader has sufficient word recognition and comprehension skills to read the text easily and fluently without assistance
instructional level text
Challenging but manageable text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader. (90% success).
The spelling that novices create before learning conventional writing systems. It is sometimes referred to as temporary, developmental or transitional spelling.
A word that cannot be decoded because either the sounds of the letters are unique to that word or that the word does not adhere to the common rules of phonics.
Deficiency in one or more specific cognitive processes despite relatively normal cognitive functioning in other areas.
the knowledge of the sounds that are associated with each letter of the alphabet
basic knowledge of the alphabet and what sounds each letter makes; foundational for literacy accquisition
L2 learners are able to understand more than they can produce. Intensive development of listening activities is essential in early stages of second language acquistion. Comprehension precedes production (speaking/writing). Before students produce an utterance in a second language, they must make choices based on the information they understand/master.
*words we recognize and understand in oral language
The vowel sounds that are also names of the alphabet letters
The author's central thought; the chief topic of a text expressed or implied in a word or phrase; the topic sentence of a paragraph.
the phenomenon that suggests that skilled decoders get better at reading while poor decoders tend to fall further behind.
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
Combining morphemes and free morphemes to make meaningful language.
the smallest unit of language
The purpose of narrative text is to entertain, to tell a story, or to provide an aesthetic literary experience. Narrative text is based on life experiences and is person-oriented using dialogue and familiar language.
the use of word patterns to read unfamiliar words
a system of written language that includes the formation of letters and spelling of words
the process of reading in pairs
A method used to integrate students with disabilities into general education settings. It is based on research that demonstrates that students can effectively tutor one another. It maximizes active student engagement with an academic task and can also improve social and communication skills. One particularly effective form is Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT).
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
REFERS TO CHILD'S ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND THAT WORDS HAVE SMALLER COMPONENTS CALLED SOUNDS, AND THAT THESE SOUNDS TOGETHER CREATE SYLLABLES AND WORDS.
Involves teaching children to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters. Example: (K) can be represented by C, K, or Ch spellings.
an awareness of an the ability to manipulate the sounds of sponken words; it is a broad tern that includes indentifying and making rhymes, recognizing alliteration, identifying and working with syllables in spoken words, identifying and working with onsets and rhymes in spoken syllables.
The study of the patterns and distributions of speech sounds in a language and the tacit rules for their pronunciation.
a syllable or word that comes before a root word to change its meaning
a syllable or word that comes before a root word to change its meaning
basic features of written language such as identifying the front and back of a book, directionality, and spoken and written language matching.
assessing student's learning through direct and frequent assessments directly on the target of concern
the use of appropriate intonation and phrasing when reading; reading with expression
A process by which we construct meaning from print.
Main idea, supporting details and facts, author's purpose, fact and opinion, point of view, inference, visualize, conclusion
The ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning.
determine reading levels using word recognition lists (graded word lists) which provide a rough guess of child's reading level, lets teacher know what words the student can correctly identify, and how well students can decode words
WHERE CHILDREN REREAD A HORT, MEANINGFUL PASSAGE UNTIL A DEGREE OF FLUENCY IS ACHIEVED.
Correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, especially when these are used at the ends of lines of poetry.
Teachers provide temporary support to a student who is not ready to perform a task independently. As the student gains confidence/skill, this support is slowly taken away until the student can function independently.
breaking words into individual phonemes, breaking words into syllables, or breaking syllables into onsets and rimes.
a word whose spelling is such that it can not be pronounced correctly just by sounding it out according to the rules. The reader recognizes sight words from having memorized them or by drawing their meaning from context.
The words used when speaking.
the way an author writes such as plot, series of events, conflict, or problem; and how the conflict is resolved.
Briefly stating the main points and key details of a work in your own words.
is a unit of pronunciation that has one vowel sound
A method of teaching reading in which sounds within words are taught as sounds and then synthesized into words. For example, the teacher would say, "listen to the 'sssss' sound."
a planned, sequential program of instruction
tape assisted reading
Students read along in their books as they hear a fluent reader read the book on an audiotape
the words composing written material such as a story, newspaper article, or sections of a textbook
The structure of the text or how the author chooses to organize the text.
A modeling activity in which the teacher verbalizes the teacher's thoughts while reading; used to model ways in which skilled readers make predictions, use visulization, related prior knowledge, and moitor and self-correct their comprehensions.
REFERS TO THE WAY THAT CHILDREN APPROACH A WRITTEN WORD IN ORDER TO DECODE AND OBTAIN MEANING FROM IT.
VOCABULARY A group of words that share the same root but have different affixes: care, careful, careless, carefree, uncaring, carer. A base word plus its inflections and its most common derivatives.
the process of automatically determining the pronunciation and some degree of the meaning of an unknown word.
creator fo Transactional Theory of reading, where meaning arises from the trasnaction between reader and text and the reader enters reading the text with their own knowledge.
language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research
1921-1997; critical pedagogy movement; emphasis on dialogue and concern with the oppressed
development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving
An approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed. Vygotsky's theory reflects this approach.
Teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.
theory that puts the focus on the reader of a text and his or her experience with it
A story using made-up characters that could happen in real life.
A type of realistic fiction that takes place in a particular time period in the past. Often the setting is real, but the characters are made up from the author's imagination.
Factual information presented in a format which tells a story
informs or explains
stories from countries throughout the world.
a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, rehearse, review.
Quiet, Alert, Responsive
is an individually administered survey designed to help you determine a students reading instructional needs
consists of two or more consonants sounded together in such a way that each is heard- like the blend of b and l in the word blend.
a set of regular changes in consonant articulation in the history of a language dialect
A passage with omitted words that the test taker must supply. Must be pre-determined if synonyms will be accepted
Words that are pronounced in the same way as one or more other words, but is different in meaning and sometimes spelling, as are "hair" and "hare".
A word that means the opposite of another word
words that go together in some way, like "thick and thin' or 'short and sweet'. they are used to give greater emphasis to what we say or write.
a basic unit of speech production and perception generally consisting of a segment of greatest acoustic energy (a peak, usually a vowel) and segments of lesser energy (troughs, usually consonants); a unit of speech consisting of an onset and/or a rhyme
vocal sound produced by relatively free passage of the airstream through larynx & oral cavity
a basic speech sound in which the breathe is at least partly obstructed and which can be combined with a vowel to form a syllable
Tier 1 words
consists of frequently used common words and expressions for which concepts are easily understood, such as butterfly, clock, bed, radio, look,or walk
Tier 2 words
"mortar" words—high frequency academic words used across contexts. They are more abstract, such as setting, plot, combine, maintain, fortunate, between, coincidence,etc
Tier 3 words
low frequency words limited to specific domains, such as tundra, lathe, peninsula (subject related)
Using knowledge about graphophonemic relationships to sound-out regular words. Some argue this is accomplished through a process known as "reading by analogy."
Stands for "What I KNOW, what I WANT to know, and what I LEARNED. It is is a type of graphic organizer to assist students in monitoring their reading comprehension
a test is norm-referenced when students are measured in relation to other students, in other words, a "norm"
ASSESSMENT WHERE THE TEACHER ATTEMPTS TO MEASURE EACH STUDENT AGAINST UNIFORM OBJECTIVES OR CRITERIA.
performance based assessments
Requires a student to perform a task rather than select an answer from a pre-determined list of options.
whole group instruction
Often used to introduce new materials and strategies, identify prior knowledge, and build common background knowledge. On a carpet, rug, or in a circle.
A reading teacher is reviewing a recently published book about a new approach to improving reading comprehension. Which of the following features should the teacher look for when evaluating the reported success of
whether the results of the research the author conducted on the approach are
reliable and valid
In a classroom, the teacher has an area for small-group instruction and another area for whole-group instruction. The learning environment is information intensive
with students collaborating on a variety of assignments and projects with the teacher roaming the room and helping individuals and groups of students. Which
theorist best describes the teachers disposition for instruction?
A teacher firmly believes that collaboration among students is essential for learning. Which of the following theories is closely aligned with this philosophy?
Use the following excerpt to answer the question.
The high price of oil in the 1970's resulted in a serious problem for many Americans. Long lines to purchase gasoline for cars were unavoidable. People were subjected to higher prices for oil to heat their homes. Oil
companies looked to other nations for new oil supplies. They also began drilling for oil on the ocean floor.
Which of the following is the excerpt an example of?
problem and solution
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
the order in which things happen or should happen
A biography is an example of which of the following?
Which of the following is NOT a criterion for selecting multicultural literature?
exclusion of leaders
A teacher collects reading records and rubric-scored writing samples over time on select students to document change over time. Which term best describes the
teacher's purpose for collecting this type of assessment?
The assessment tools for the purpose of evaluating expertise include
research papers, formal presentations, and formal debates.
Which of the following is the best way to determine reading instructional groups in a classroom with students who have a wide range of skills and abilities?
review state reading test scores, then administer an IRI
Teachers at a middle school made a commitment to use observational notes to monitor students' strengths and needs and to use that information for providing
differentiated instruction and flexible grouping. What type of grouping is this an
An effective way for a teacher of English language learners to integrate speaking and listening into the classroom would be to use
Which adaptation of the basal reading program is the most efficient for struggling readers?
During a shared reading of an enlarged text in a primary learning environment, the teacher focuses instruction on the structure of the language by engaging students
periodically in conversation. Which cognitive working system is the teacher scaffolding during the lesson?
syntactic working system
Students who cannot decode and rely on context and initial letters to figure out unknown words demonstrate characteristics of which phase of word recognition?
Which of the following is most appropriate for developing the concept that print is "speech written down"?
language experience approach
Which of the following statements is true in relation to early literacy skill acquisition?
Naming letters with phonological awareness and sounds is an effective method.
A teacher working with diverse learners in the emergent stage of literacy development should
first develop students' oral and academic vocabulary knowledge.
A teacher uses the following instructional procedures.
1. Teach the students to recognize orally the individual sounds in words.
2. Teach the students to blend the sounds in words.
What is the focus of this instruction?
Which of the following is the most effective strategy to assist a middle-schooler struggling with 3rd-grade high-frequency words?
create an individual word bank for the student
Which of the following descriptions best matches tier 1 vocabulary words?
prevalent in everyday language
Which procedure is most appropriate for teaching multiple-meaning words?
Which of the following instructional practices are the most appropriate to use to aid English language learners in a mathematics classroom from Tier 1 to Tier 2 word
student matches words with both common and applied definitions
For intentional vocabulary development, which of the following is the most effective to implement in instruction?
before, during, and after the reading of text with emphasis on repeated
An oral reading fluency measure indicates that a student reads in two- and three word phrases causing the reading to sound choppy. Additionally, the measure
reveals that the student made improper stresses and intonations which failed to indicate the end of sentences or clauses. From this measure, the teacher should
work in which of the following areas of fluency?
A teacher encourages his 1st-grade English language learners to read selected narrative decodable texts to their parent or guardian five times over the course of a
week. The primary purpose of this oral reading activity is to increase
In preparing 3rd-grade students to read informational text on the importance of recycling, the teacher is primarily concerned with activating students' prior
knowledge. Which of the following would be most effective?
Which strategy would best help students develop the ability to synthesize reading material?
reading two passages and brainstorming in small groups to create Venn diagrams that compare and contrast theme, content, characters, and details of
A diagram that uses circles to display elements of different sets. Overlapping circles show common elements.
A teacher has surveyed their middle school Earth Science class and has concluded that most of the students have little knowledge about regional weather patterns.
Which of the following sources would provide the students with the most up-to-date and comprehensive information
online weather report site
The district reading leadership team has determined based on data that additional informal progress monitoring opportunities in reading must be included in
instruction for all the schools in the district. Which of the following progress monitoring resources will support this district effort?
provide professional development on formative assessments for all teachers
In October, a teacher meets with a paraprofessional of an 11th-grade student to discuss ways to increase teacher and peer interactions, decrease an over reliance on the paraprofessional, and build independence. Which of the following is this an example of?
clarifying roles and responsibilities
Sea, and see, fair and fare, are called
Words that are pronounced in the same way as one or more other words, but is different in meaning and sometimes spelling, as are "hair" and "hare".
Another name for a persuasive essay is
The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.
An essay where you are trying to convince someone
a paper that helps delegates to organize their ideas and aid in formatting and representing a country's policy
A teacher is working with a group of third graders at the same reading level. Her goal is to improve reading fluency. She asks each child in turn to read a page from a book about mammal young. She asks the children to read with expression. She also reminds them they don't need to stop between each word; they should read as quickly as they comfortably can. She cautions them, however, not to read so quickly that they leave out or misread a word. The teacher knows the components of reading fluency are:
Rate, accuracy, and prosody
"Language load" refers to:
the number of unrecognizable words an English Language Learner encounters when reading a passage or listening to a teacher
the number of unrecognizable words an ELL encounters when reading a passage or listening to a teacher
A syllable must contain:
A third-grade teacher has several students reading above grade level. Most of the remaining students are reading at grade level. There are also a few students reading below grade level. She decides to experiment. Her hypothesis is that by giving the entire class a chapter book above grade level, high-level readers will be satisfied, grade level readers will be challenged in a positive way, and students reading below grade level will be inspired to improve. Her method is most likely to:
Fail, producing students students at a frustration reading level. Those reading below grade level are likely to give up entirely. Those reading at grade level are likely to get frustrated and form habits that will actually slow down their development
Of the three tiers of words, the most important words for direct instruction are:
At the beginning of each month, Mr. Yi has Jade read a page or two from a book she hasn't seen before. He notes the total number of words in the section, and also notes the number of times she leaves out or misreads a word. If Jade reads the passage with less than 3% error, Mr. Yi is satisfied that Jade is:
reading at her independent reading level
The purpose of corrective feedback is:
To correct an error in reading a student has made, specifically clarifying where and how the error was made so that the student can avoid similar errors in the future
Dr. Jenks is working with a group of high school students. They are about to read a science book about fossils. Before they begin, she writes the words stromatolities, fossiliferous, and Eocene on the board. She explains the meaning of each word. These words are examples of:
Which of the following best explains the importance prior knowledge brings to the act of reading?
Prior knowledge is knowledge the student brings from previous life or learning experiences to the act of reading. it is not possible for a student to fully comprehend new knowledge without first integrating it with prior knowledge
A cloze text evaluates a student's
Understanding of context and vocabulary
Sight words are:
Common words with irregular spending
Phonemic awareness is a type of:
Phonological awareness. Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize sounds within words.
The term "common words" means
familiar, frequently used words that do not need to be taught beyond primary grades
Which is greater, the number of English phoneme or the number of letters in the alphabet?
The number of phonemes. A phoneme is the smallest measure of language sound
The most effective strategy for decoding sight words is
None; sight words cannot be decoded. Readers must learn to recognize these words as wholes on sight.
Which of the following choices will be most important when designing a reading activity or lesson for students?
Determining a purpose for instruction
"Decoding" is also called
an understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.
Various strategies to each and reinforce skills to those meading more practice.It is particulary helpful to those with menatal retardation, deafness, speech-language problems, other health impaired and traumatic brain injury.
Phonological awareness activities are
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