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166 terms

Advanced Management & Organizational Behavior

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So called "soft" people skills are a necessary ingredient for success for today's managers.
True
Later analysis of the Hawthorne studies supported initial conclusions.
False
According to McGregor's Theory X, the typical employee can learn to accept and seek responsibility.
False
According to W. Edwards Deming, when things go wrong, there is roughly an 85% chance the system (e.g. management, machinery, or rules) is at fault and about a 15% chance the individual employee is at fault.
True
A meta-analysis is a statistical pooling technique that permits behavioral scientists to draw general conclusions about certain variables from many different studies.
True
Unethical behavior occurs: A) mostly in the bottom levels of the organization
B) mostly within the top levels of the organization
C) mostly during colder seasons
D) from the bottom to the top of the organization
E) from new employees
D) From the bottom to the top of the organization
Which of the following is an assumption of McGregor's Theory Y?
A) The typical person cares only about security.
B) The typical person prefers to be directed.
C) The typical person avoids work if possible.
D) The typical person requires close supervision.
E) The typical person is capable of self-direction and self-control.
E) The typical person is capable of self-direction and self-control.
In a __________, groups of people from a specified population respond to questionnaires, which researchers use to draw conclusions about the relevant population.
A) field study
B) sample survey
C) laboratory study
D) case study
E) meta-analysis
B) Sample survey
A __________ is an in-depth analysis of a single individual, group or organization and is characterized by realistic but not very generalizable results.
A) case study
B) meta-analysis
C) sample survey
D) field study
E) laboratory study
A) Case study
The definition of Corporate Social Responsibility indicates that:
A) Corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit.
B) Corporations have the responsibility to attend social events within the community.
C) Corporations are to clearly contribute to reducing the frequency of unethical behaviour
D) Corporations are to have positive relationships within the organization
E) Corporations are expected to follow all laws
A) Corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit.
Race represents an external dimension of diversity.
False
Internal dimensions of diversity contain an element of control or choice.
False
Current day minority groups do not experience their own glass ceiling.
False
The Family & Medical Leave Act of 1993 requires employers to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave for medical and family reasons, including childbirth, adoption, or family emergency.
False
Team performance is positively related to a team's diversity in gender, ethnicity, age and education.
True
__________ is an example of an external dimension of diversity.
A) Religion
B) Race
C) Gender
D) Personality
E) Union affiliation
A) Religion
Affirmative action is __________ driven.
A) ethically
B) strategically
C) pragmatically
D) behaviorally
E) legally
E) Legally
All of the following are tips for women to advance to senior positions and career success except:
A) Seek mentors for different purposes
B) Learn to play golf
C) Build social capital
D) Don't boast about accomplishments
E) Seek work life balance
D) Don't boast about accomplishments
Which of the following is NOT one of the Generic Action Options for handling diversity according to R Roosevelt Thomas Jr.?
A) Deny
B) Suppress
C) Tolerate
D) Affirmative Action
E) Foster Mutual Adaptation
D) Affirmative action
Which of the following Generic Action Options for handling diversity states that all diverse people will learn to fit in or become like the dominant group?
A) Suppression
B) Toleration
C) Assimilation
D) Building relationships
E) None of these
C) Assimilation
Organizational culture is the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions held by a group that determines how the group perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.
True
Enacted values represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization.
False
A clan culture has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control.
True
Employees working in organizations with hierarchical or market-based cultures reported lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but have greater intention to keep their jobs.
False
The encounter phase is the last stage in the organizational socialization process.
False
___________ is a long term plan outlining actions needed to achieve a desired result.
A) Vision
B) Formal Statement
C) Strategic Plan
D) Cultural Change Plan
E) None of the above
C) Strategic plan
Which of the following is an example of a psychosocial function of mentoring?
A) Sponsorship.
B) Coaching.
C) Protection.
D) Providing exposure and visibility.
E) Friendship.
E) Friendship
In the __________ phase of the organizational socialization process, employees begin to learn what the organization is really like. This phase begins when the employment contract is signed.
A) encounter
B) cultivation
C) anticipatory socialization
D) change and acquisition
E) separation
A) Encounter
A __________ developmental network is composed of a few weak ties from one social system such as an employer or professional association.
A) receptive
B) traditional
C) entrepreneurial
D) opportunistic
E) encounter
A) Receptive
The __________ network is the strongest type of developmental network.
A) receptive
B) traditional
C) entrepreneurial
D) opportunistic
E) encounter
C) Entrepreneurial
Culture generally remains below the threshold of conscious awareness because it involves taken-for-granted assumptions about how one should perceive, think, act, and feel.
True
Stereotyping is the belief that one's native country, culture, language, and modes of behavior are superior to all others.
False
The Scandinavians represent a high-context culture.
False
Mexicans tend to have a polychronic view of time.
True
In the Hofstede Study, the individualism-collectivism dimension represents the strength of the bond between individuals and societal groups.
True
The Koreans have a relatively __________ culture.
A) universalist
B) relativist
C) low-context
D) high-context
E) monochromic
D) High-context
People from __________ cultures rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when perceiving and communicating with another person.
A) high-context
B) low-context
C) universalist
D) polychromic
E) relativist
A) High-context
People in monochronic cultures tend to view time as
A) flexible.
B) cyclical.
C) linear.
D) multidimensional.
E) fluid.
C) Linear
To describe anyone living or working in a foreign country, we use the term:
A) Foreigner
B) Alien
C) Expatriate
D) Expirate
E) None of the above
C) Expatriate
Based on the Hofstede Study, __________ reflects the extent to which people expect inequality in social institutions (e.g. the family, organization, or government).
A) power distance
B) individualism-collectivism
C) masculinity-femininity
D) uncertainty avoidance
E) long-term versus short-term orientation
A) Power distance
Generally speaking, the more narrow the span of control in an organization, the higher the organization's administrative costs.
True
The modular structure overlays a vertical and with a horizontal structure which results in two command structures - functional and divisional.
False
A learning organization is one that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and that changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights.
True
Whether or not an organization meets or exceeds its goals is one way to judge the effectiveness of an organization.
True
One of the benefits of innovation identified in the Model of Innovation was improving on services and products the organization already has.
True
__________ refers to the idea that each employee should report to only one manager.
A) Span of control
B) The Unity of command principle
C) Emergent leadership
D) Bureaucracy
E) A New-style organization
B) The Unity of command principle
Which of the following is identified as an early warning sign of decline in the text?
A) Effective communication if decreased.
B) Goals are not clear and decision benchmarks are not present.
C) Administrative procedures become a burden and are cumbersome.
D) Answer selections A and C only.
E) All of these are early warning signs of decline.
E) All of these are early warning signs of decline
A synonym for the term "innovation" in the context of organizational innovation would be:
A) invention.
B) creativity.
C) integration.
D) All of the above are correct.
E) None of the above are correct.
E) None of the above are correct
When measuring organizational effectiveness, the __________ approach is appropriate when powerful stakeholders can significantly benefit or harm the organization.
A) internal processes
B) goal accomplishment
C) stakeholder audit
D) strategic constituencies
E) resource acquisition
D) Strategic constituencies
Which of the following is a characteristic of mechanistic organizations?
A) Top-down communication patterns.
B) Democratic decision making.
C) Low emphasis on obedience and loyalty.
D) Broad task definitions.
E) A clear link between an individual's contribution and the organization's purpose.
A) Top-down communication patterns
Hardiness refers to a personality trait that allows a person to neutralize stress by perceptually or behaviorally transform negative stressors into positive challenges.
True
According to the typology of change, innovative change involves introducing a practice that is new to the industry.
False
In Lewin's change model, the "unfreezing" stage involves getting employees to become dissatisfied with the old way of doing things.
True
A company's strategic plan outlines the organization's long-term direction and actions necessary to achieve planned results.
True
Research in the area of resistance to change revealed that high levels of self esteem were negatively associated with resistance to change.
False
Which of the following was not mentioned as a stress reduction technique in the discussion in the text?
A) Biofeedback
B) Hypnotism
C) Holistic Wellness
D) Cognitive Restructuring
B) Hypnotism
Which of the following is not a reason why employees resist change?
A) Past failures
B) Fear of failure
C) Peer pressure
D) Surprise or fear of the unknown
E) Past success
A) Past failures
__________ is a commonly used method to overcome resistance to change in situations where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power.
A) Education/communication
B) Facilitation/support
C) Participation/involvement
D) Explicit/implicit coercion
E) Manipulation/co-optation
D) Explicit/implicit coercion
According to the Model of Occupational Stress, __________ is an example of a group-level stressor.
A) Harassment
B) Role conflict
C) Work overload
D) Technology
E) Family
A) Harassment
A(n) __________ coping strategy consists of using methods such as relaxation, meditation, medication, or exercise to manage stress.
A) escape
B) symptom management
C) control
D) hardiness
E) buffering
B) Symptom management
Organization
System of consciously coordinating activities of two or more people
Oranizational behavior
Interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work
Theory Y
McGregor's modern and positive assumptions about employees being responsible and creative
Total quality management
An organizational culture dedicated to training, continuous improvement and customer satisfaction
E-business
Running the entire business via the Internet
Human capital
The productive potential of one's knowledge and actions
Social capital
The productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships
Management
Process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives, efficiently and ethically, amid constant change
Contingency approach
Using management tools and techniques in a situationally appropriate manner, avoiding the one-best-way mentality
Ethics
Study of moral issues and choices
Corporate social responsibility
The idea that corporations are expected to go avoe and beyond following the law and making a profit
Whistle-blowing
Reporting unethical/illegal acts to outside third parties
Morally attentive
Faithfully considering the ethical implications of one's actions
Meta-analysis
Pools the results of many studies thorugh statistical procedure
Field study
Examination of variables in real-life settings
Lab study
Manipulation and measurement of variables in contrived situations
Sample survey
Questionnaire responses from a sample of peope
Case study
In-depth study of a single person, group, or organization
Diversity
The host of individual diferences that make people different from and similar to each other
Discrimination
Occurs whn employment decisions are based on factors that are not job related
Affirmative action
Focuses on achieving equality of opportunity in an organization
Managing diversity
Creating organizational changes that enable all people to perform up to their maximum potential
Workforce demographics
Statistical profiles of adult workers
Glass ceiling
Invisible barrier blocking women and minorities from top management positions
Social categorization theory
Similarity leads to liking and attraction
Infomation/decision-making theory
Diversity leads to better task-relevant processes and decision making
Demographic faultline
A hypothetical dividing line that splits groups into demographically based subgroups
Diversity climate
Employees' aggregate perceptions about an organization's policies, practices, and procedures pertaining to diversity
Organizational culture
Shared values and beliefs that underlie a company's identity
Values
Enduring belief in a mode of conduct or end-state
Espoused values
The stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization
Sustainability
Meeting humanity's need without harming future generations
Enacted values
The values and norms that are exhibited by employees
Competing values framework
A frameworkfor categorizing organizational culture
Clan culture
A culture that has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control
Adhocracy culture
A culture that has an external focus and values flexibility
Market culture
A culture that has a strong external focus andvalues stability and control
Hierarchy culture
A culture that has an internal focus and values stability and control over flexibility
Vision
Long-term goal describing "what" an organization wants to become
Strategic plan
A long-term plan outlining actions needed to achieve desired results
Organizational socialization
Process by which employees learn an organization's values, norms, and required behaviors
Anticipatory socialization phase
Occurs before an individual joins an organizaton, and involves the information people learn about different careers, occupations, professions, and organizations
Realistic job preview
Presents both positive and negative aspects of a job
Encounter phase
Employees learn what the organization is really like and reconcile unment expectations
Onboarding
Programs aimed at helping employees integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs
Change and acquisition phase
Requires employees to master tasks and roles and to adjust to work group values and norms
Mentoring
Process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior person
Diversity of developmental relationships
The variety of people in a network used for developmental assistance
Developmental relationship strength
The quality of relationships among people in a network
Culture
Beliefs and values about how a community of people should and do act
Ethnocentrism
Belief that one's native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior
Cultural intelligence
The ability to interpret ambiguous cross-cultural situations accurately
High-context cultures
Primary meaning derived from nonverbal situational cues
Low-context cultures
Primary meaning derived from writen and spoken words
Individualistic culture
Primary emphasis on personal freedom and choice
Collectivist culture
Personal goals less important than community goals and interests
Monochronic time
Preference for doing one thing at a time because time is limited, precisely segmented, and shedule driven
Polychronic time
Preference for doing more than one thing at a time because time is flexible, multidimensional, and based on relationships and situations
Proxemics
Hall's term for the study of cultural expectations about interpersonal space
Cross-cultural management
Understanding and teaching behavior patterns in different cultures
Expatriate
Anyone living or working in a foreign country
Cross-cultural training
Structured experiences to help people adjust to a new culture/country
Culture shock
Anxiety and doubt caused by an overload of new expectations and cues
Unity of command principle
Each employer should report to a single manager
Organizational chart
Boxes-and-lines illustration shwing chain of frmal authority and division of labor
Span of control
The number of people reporting directly to a given manager
Staff personnel
Provide research, advice, and recommendations to line managers
Line managers
Have authority to make organizational decisions
Closed system
A relatively self-sufficient entity
Open system
Organism that must constantly interact with its environment to survive
Learning organization
Proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge throughout the organization
Contingency approach to organization design
Creating an effective organization-environment fit
Mechanistic organizations
Rigid command-and-control bureaucracies
Organic organizations
Fluid and flexible networks of multitalented people
Centralized decision making
Top managers make all key decisions
Decentralized decision making
Lower-leve managers are empowered to make important decisions
Strategic constituency
Any group of people with a stake in the organizatio's operation or success
Stakeholder audit
Systematic identification of all parties likely to be affected by the organization
Organizational decline
Decrease in organization's resource base (money, customers, talent, innovations)
Organizational narcissism
Organizational tendency to deny facts, use self-aggrandizement, and feel entitled
Innovation
Creation of something new that is used by consumers
Seeds of innovation
Starting point of organizational innovation
Execution
A systematic process of discussing hows and whats, questioning tenaciously following through, and ensuring accountability
External forces for change
Originate outside the organization
Internal forces for change
Originate inside the organization
Benchmarking
Process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations
Mission statement
Summarizes "why" an organization exists
Target elements of change
Components of an organization that may be changed
Organization development
A set of techniques or tools used to implement organizational change
Change agent
Individual who is a catalyst in helping organizations to implement change
Resistance to change
Emotional/behavioral response to real or imaginal work changes
Resilience to change
Composite personal characteristic reflecting high self-esteem optimism, and an internal locus of control
Stress
Behavioral, pysical, or psychological responses to stressors
Eustress
Stress that is good or produces a positive outcome
Stressors
Environmental factors that produce stress
Primary appraisal
Determining whether a stressor is irrelevant, positive or stressful
Secondary appraisal
Assessing what might and can be done to reduce stress
Control strategy
Coping strategy that directly confronts or solves problems
Escape strategy
Coping strategy that avoids or ignores stressors and problems
Symptom management strategy
Coping strategy that focuses on reducing the symptoms of stress
Social support
Amount of helpfulness derived from social relationships
Hardiness
Personality characteristic that neutralizes stress
Type A behavior pattern
Aggressively involved in a chronic, determined struggle to accomplish more in less time
Employee assistance programs
Help employees to resolve personal problems that affect their productivity
Holistic wellness approach
Advocates personal responsibility for healthy living
Fight-or-flight response
To either confont stressors or try to avoid them