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Napoleon III

Nephew of Napoleon I. Popular because he had his uncle's revered name, he was a tough ruler against socialism, and he had a positive "program" for France. Believed government should represent the people.

National Assembly

Conservative parliament of sorts in France that President Louis Napoleon had to share the power with. Failed to change the consititution in 1851 to allow Napoleon to run again, so he dismissed them with a coup d'etat.

Second Empire

The New Emperor Napoleon III encouraged public works, investment banks, railroads, and economic progress in general to ease tensions in his _________ _____________.

urban workers

Napoleon gained support until the mid-1860's from France's most dissatisfied group, the _________ ________.

unions and strikes

In the 1860's, Emperor Napoleon III allowed ________ ____ _________, important economic rights denied by earlier governments.

universal male suffrage

Louis Napoleon restored __________________________________ in France.


Because he was sensitive to public opinions, Napoleon III progressively __________ his empire, giving the Assembly greater power and the opposition candidates greater freedom.


In 1870, Louis Napoleon provided France with a new __________ that was basically a parliamentary regime with a hereditary emperor as chief of state.


Italy had never been united prior to _______.

Congress of Vienna

Reorganized Italy in 1815. Northern Lombardy and Venetia went to Metternich's Austria, Sardinia and Piedmont were controlled by an Italian king, the papacy controlled Central Italy and Rome, Naples was ruled by the Bourbons.


Radical, idealistic patriot who believed Italyl should be reorganized into a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people.


A Catholic priest who thought Italy should be a federation of existing states under the pope.


The kingdom ruled by Victor Emmanuel that many Italians looked up to. Had a liberal constitution and was ideal to help with national unification.


The dominant figure in the Sardinian government. Used his cunning nature and intelligence to help unify Italy.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Superpatriot who emerged in 1860 as an independent force in Italian politics. Had a bold plan to "liberate" the kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Red Shirts

The guerrilla band of 1000 that attacked Sicily and was successful, marching toward Naples until intercepted by Cavour's Sardinian forces.

German Confederation

Series of German states who were in a political stalemate in the aftermath of 1848. Austria and Prussia wanted to block each other.


Customs union in Germany founded in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase incomes of member states. Hugely successful. Excluded only Austria.

William I of Prussia

tough-minded king who replaced Frederick William IV and was convinced of the need of major army reforms. Wanted to double the army.

wealthy middle class

This group was greatly overrepresented by the Prussian electoral system. It wanted society to be less militaristic and wanted to make sure the military wasn't a "state within a state". Rejected William I's military budget in 1862.

Otto von Bismarck

Born into the Prussian landowning aristocracy, a strong and conservative man who wanted power but was masterfully flexible in politics. Exemplified Realpolitik. Head of ministry in Prussia since 1862.

Blood and iron

Bismarck's way of ruling: not liberal like in the failed 1848, but more in tune with "might makes right".

Danish War

War in which Austria and Prussia joined together against Denmark when Denmark attempted to bring Schleswig-Holstein into the Danish state against the will of the German Confederation. Brought Prussia into a position to beat Austria w/ war if necessary.

Austro-Prussian War

A seven-week war in 1866 in which railroads and the breechloading needle gun were used by the Prussians to defeat Austria. Prussia offered Austria generous peace terms, and Austria agreed to withdraw from German affairs. North German Confederation formed.

North German Confederation

The states north of the Main River in Germany led by an expanding Prussia, and created after the Austro-Prussian War.

Indemnity Bill

Bismarck's "olive branch" to the middle class parliament in 1866 after he had gone ahead with spending and army reforms against their will. Most accepted it even though they disagreed with his spending.

Hermann Baumgarten

A history professor and member of the liberal opposition in Germany who repented his "sins" to a great extent in 1866.

Franco-Prussian War

The war between 1870 and 1871 that Bismarck crafted in order to drive the southern German states into his arms. Started under the diplomatic pretext of the issue of the king of Spain. Won decisively by Prussia, consolidating Germany and creating strong German nationalism.

Treaty of Frankfurt

The treaty ending the Franco-Prussian War where the German Empire imposed a harsh peace on France. France had to pay 5 billion francs and give Alsace and Lorraine up.


This was the chief industry in the South of the United States in the 19th century, revitalizing slave-based agriculture and helped the US's economic growth.

Civil War

1861-1865 war in America in which the Union (North) was preserved and even prospered with enthusiasm and the south was put at a huge disadvantage. Ended with blacks being, for the most part, free but unequal.

Homestead Act

1862 Act in United States to end the Civil War.


Russia's push of reforms to catch up to the rest of Europe; their backward nature was brutally clear in the Crimean War. Somewhat "halfway" reforms included the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the introduction of the zemstvos, and reform of the legal system forming equality before the law.


Local assemblies established in 1864 in Russia elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners. Dealt with local problems. Little real influence.


After 1860, Russia subsidized companies and pushe the construction of _______, improving transportation and trade in the country.

Alexander II

The Russian tsar and instigator of many modernizing reforms who was assassinated in 1881.

Alexander III

A determined reactionary and tsar of Russia.

Sergei Witte

The smart minister of finance in Russia who believed industrialization would improve Russia. Pushed railroad building, high tariffs to protect Russian industry, and foreign investment (a HUGE success).


This class of people continued to make up the majority of the Russian population in 1900.

revolution of 1905

The revolution in Russia caused by discontent among all sorts of people in the country.

Bloody Sunday

The peaceful gathering at Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia led by Father Gapon, which turned horrifyingly violent when troops opened fire. Produced a general indignation for the tsar.

October Manifesto

The Russian government's reaction to a general strike in October 1905. Granted civil rights and promised a parliament with real legislative power.


Russian Parliament.

Fundamental Laws

The new constitution for Russia in 1906. Gave the tsar great powers. Allowed a Duma elected by universal male suffrage, but the tsar had absolute veto. Caused frustration among middle-class liberals.

Peter Stolypin

The tough, energetic chief minister in Russia who pushed agrarian reforms to break down collective village ownership of land and encourage peasants to be more enterprising. Encouraged free economy.

women's suffrage movement

Achieved its first success in the western United States. Successful in 1914 in Norway. Women like Emmeline Pankhurst were very militant during this movement.


Created imaginary enemies like Jews in order to build extreme nationalist movements.


Popularly elected lower house in Germany.


Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church, backed by the National Liberals. Out of frustration with the pope's dogma to put the church above the nation. Withdrawn in 1878 for largely economic reasons.

economic protectionism

Worldwide agricultural depression after 1873 resulted in the policy of ________________________in Germany. Involved new higher tariffs.


In Germany, Bismarck outlawed socialism in _______(year). Because German socialists were so organized, it wasn;t successful.

social security system

As a solution to win the support of working-class people and draw them away from socialism, Bismarck created a __________ __________ ________.

William II

The new emperor of Germany in 1890 who wanted to keep power for himself and forced Bismarck to resign. Continued passing social security laws, but didn't get people to renounce socialism.

German Social Democratic Party

The largest single party in the Reichstag in 1912.


In Germany, ________ were becoming less radical and more gradual; focused on slower reform rather than revolution.

Paris Commune

The defeat of France in 1871 led to revolution in Paris (the _________ __________). They wanted to govern Paris without interference from conservatives in the country. It was crushed by the National Assembly.

Third Republic

The new Paris setup that passed reforms such as legalizing trade unions, creating state schools, and building a colonial empire. It was ruled by skilled men like Leon Gambetta and Jules Ferry.


The Third Republic actively hired __________ schoolteachers in order to provide contrast to the Catholic nuns and priests, improve loneliness, and attempt to enhance France's birthrate by hiring teachers and mothers.

Dreyfus Affair

The false accusation of Alfred Dreyfus of treason in the 1890s. Split France between anti-Semites, the government, and Catholics vs. civil libertarians and radical republicans.

John Stuart Mill

Wrote in his famous essay On LIberty about the problem of how to protect the rights of individuals and minorities in an electoral system. He wanted to safeguard individual differences and unpopular opinions.

Benjamin Disraeli

A Conservative leader (and prime minister) who supported extending the vote in England.

House of Commons

English section of Parliament that was drifting towards democracy.

House of Lords

English section of Parliament that was stubborn, vetoing several measures in England.

Third Reform Bill of 1884

Gave the vote in England to almost every adult male.

People's Budget

Bill designed to increase spending on social welfare services in England, but vetoed by the House of Lords. Passed when the Lords were overthrown.


The issue of home rule (selfgovernment) divided Ireland into the northern Protestant ______________, who opposed it, and the southern Catholic nationalists, who favored it.

Austro-Hungarian Empire

Empire in which a dual monarchy was set up in order to bring compromise to a series of different ethnicities.

Dual Monarchy

The setup created in Austria-Hungary with the Ausgleich of 1867. Actually intensified nationalisms and conflicts domestically, because many different ethnicities wanted their language to be spoken in schools and government.


In this year in Germany, Jews were officially emancipated. Still, exclusion from government employment and discrimination in social relations remained.


Vicious _____________________ returned after the stock-market crash of 1873 because people blamed Jews of controlling the economy and being threats.


The idea formed by Theodor Herzl that advocated the creation of a Jewish state.

eastern Europe

Before 1914, anti-Semitism was most oppressive in __________ ___________--where there was no Jewish emancipation and 4 million of Europe's 7 million Jews.


Violent government attacks on Jewish people.

First International

With Marx's help, socialists united in 1864 to form an international socialist organization known as the _________ ________________; it was shortlived but had a great psychological impact.

Second International

The ___________ ______________--a federation of national socialist parties--lasted until 1914.

May Day

May 1st every year, a celebration dedicated to a one-day strike for marches and demonstrations.


________ were gradually legalized in Europe, and they were another factor in the trend toward moderation.


An effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.

Edward Bernstein

A socialist who wrote Evolutionary Socialism. He suggested gradual gains for workers, which were heresy by the German Social Democratic Party, but gained popularity among German socialists.

Jean Juares

A French leader of Revisionism.

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