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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (30)
Begging the question
When a statement is assumed to be true without evidence other than the statement or claim itself
Ignoring the Question
Avoid answering the question by changing the subject
Misleading use of a term with more than one meaning or sense.
A feather is light.
What is light cannot be dark.
Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.
All jackasses have long ears.
Carl is a jackass.
Therefore, Carl has long ears.
Ultimatum, either claim X or claim Y must be true
You are for war or you are against our troops.
Trying to link the truth of one thing to make another unrelated thing true
Claim A is made.
Evidence is presented for Claim A.
Therefore, Claim C is true.
People generally like to walk on the beach. Beaches have sand. Therefore, having sand floors in homes would be a great idea!
Argumentum Ad Hominem
An attack on a person rather than their stance
An appeal to pity. Someone tries to win support for an argument by exploiting opponent's feelings
Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
Creates a hypothesis about what would have happened had something else not occurred
If event X did happen, then event Y would have happened. (based on speculation)
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Since event Y followed event X, event X must have caused event Y
Inferring that something is true of the whole based on the fact that it is true for some part of the whole.
A is part of B,
A has property X,
Therefore B has property X
Hydrogen is not wet. Oxygen is not wet. Therefore water is not wet.
Reasoning that something that is true for etc whole must also be true for the sum of its parts.
When the premises of an argument contradict each other
(generalization) General rule or observation is treated as universally true regardless of the circumstances or the individuals concerned
"New York Values" not everyone in New York believes the same thing
illogical, misleading comparison between two things
"If teachers use their lesson plans and textbooks to teach, then why can't students use their notes on tests?"
a fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
Drawing a conclusion based on a small sample size, rather than looking at statistics that are much more in line with typical or average situation
Premise and the Common Ground
Establishing common ground to push your premise (previous statement)
Using an authority figure to verify the worth of a product
According to Person 1, Y is true.
Therefore, Y is true
Appeals to popular attitudes and emotions without evidence supporting the claims (bandwagon)
Most people believed that the earth was the center of the universe. (This is not true)
Self Evident Truths
A basic assumption that supports an argument
Guilt / Innocence by Association
teachers use textbooks to teach, so why don't they let studnets use textbooks to take tests
Something intended to be distracting
Directed against a person rather than the position they are maintaining
Claiming the argument is flawed by pointing out that the one making the argument is not acting consistently with the claims of the argument
"Based on the arguments I have presented, it is evident that it is morally wrong to use animals for food or clothing."
"But you are wearing a leather jacket and you have a roast beef sandwich in your hand! How can you say that using animals for food and clothing is wrong?"
When an authority that is not a true expert speaks on a topic outside of their area of expertise
Name the popularity of an idea to make a case for its truth
Everyone is doing it, so should you,
Everyone believes it's true, so it must be true
Falsely implying that one occurrence will lead to another
usually connected by "the next thing you know"
Opposing a Straw Man
Substituting a person's position or argument with a distorted, exaggerated, or misrepresented version
Substituting facts and evidence with words that stir up emotion, attempting to manipulate others into accepting the truth of the argument
Moving the Goalposts
argument in which evidence presented in response to a specific question is dismissed and greater evidence is demanded
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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