Chapter 22 Enlightenment and Revolution (Hamner)

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GalileoItalian scientist who studied stars with a homemade telescope, supported the views of Copernicus and Kepler, put under house arrest for these beliefsJohannes KeplerConcluded, based on Brahe's work, that the planets did indeed revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits/proved Copernicus' theoryBaconEnglish scientist - inductive reasoning - encouraged empiricism (experimental method), - believed that scientists should conduct experiments and then draw conclusions in order to re-assess ancient principlesBacon and DescartesWhat two scientists' thinkings formed the scientific methodDescartes- French scientist who developed analytical geometry - deductive reasoning - used math and logic to prove things - only thing he knew for sure is that he existed - believed in rejecting ancient philosophiesZacharias Janssendeveloped first microscopeIsaac Newton- English Mathematician/Physicist who discovered law of gravity (every object in universe attracts every other object with the strength depending on object's mass), - said universe worked together like a clockAntwon Van Leewenhoekused microscope to examine basic bacteriaEvangelista Torricellideveloped first mercury barometerGabriel Fahrenheitmade first thermometer to use mercury in glass, freezing was 32 degreesAnders Celsiuscreated scale for mercury thermometer in which freezing is at 0 degreesGalenAncient Greek physician who based his medical opinions off dissections of pigs and other animalsAndreas Versaliusproved Galen's assumptions wrong; dissected human corpses and published findingsEdward Jennerintroduced smallpox vaccine in late 1700s by injecting people with small doses of cowpoxBoyleFather of Modern Chemistry who challenged Aristotle's 4 elements theory, said that matter was made up of smaller particles binding together in different waysBoyle's Lawscientific law stating that volume, temp and pressure of gas affect each otherEnlightenmentnew intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and power of individuals to solve problemsHobbes' version of a social contractan agreement by which people created a gov'tThomas Hobbes- Wrote Leviathan - Believed that all people were naturally wicked - Government was right and moral - In order to escape chaos, people should hand over their rights to an absolute monarch w/ power of a LeviathanJohn Locke- believed people gave ruler the right to rule - all people had rights to life, liberty, property - Gov't was responsible for protecting those 3 rights - If they fail to do so, people had right to overthrow itphilosophesSocial critics of the enlightenment periodMontesquieu- Fr. writer, studied political liberty - Said that Br. gov't perfectly separated gov't power - Came up with idea of checks and balances - Proposed that separation of powers kept any one branch from becoming too powerful (US Const. foundation)Voltaire-greatest philosophe, real name was Francois Marie Arouet, -used satire to defend rights of tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and speech -jailed twice as a result of contradicting the views of both Cath Church and Fr. Gov'tRousseau- Swiss philosophe, proposed individual freedom - gov't corrupted man, wanted direct democracy - abolished titles of nobility, all people are equalRousseau's social contractagreement among free individuals to create a gov'tBeccaria-Italian philosphe - no torture, no unfair trials, speedy trials - punishment based on crime - gov't should seek greatest good for majorityWollstonecraft- early women's rights activist - thought women deserved an edu on par w/ men's - women should enter politics and medicineinspired carry outEnlightenment thinkers ______ the revolution, they did not _________ the revolutionlose faith in religion, believe in individualismEnlightenment ideas led people to: (2)salonsregular philosophical social gatheringsParisintellectual center of Europe during the EnglightenmentMarie-Therese Geoffrin- woman who hosted numerous salons - sponsored the work of DiderotDiderot- created a large set of books to which many leading European scholars contributed articles/essays - First Encyclopedia, began in 1751baroque (ornate) neoclassicalArt during the enlightenment transitioned from manly ________ to ____________"new classical", simple, elegant, classically inspiredneoclassical art is described asclassical musicWhat was the new, lighter, more elegant style of music emerging during the EnlightenmentMozartMain composer of classical musicnovelsA new form of literature, a lengthy work of prose fiction, was being introduced, and it was popular with the middle class. It was calledPamela by RichardsonFirst true English novelVoltaireWhich philosophe suggested that monarchs rule more justlyenlightened despots (abs. ruler)monarchs who followed Voltaire's suggestions to some degree were known asmake countries stronger, make their own rule more supremeThe motives for a monarch to follow Voltaire's viewsFrederick the Great- King of Prussia from 1740-86 - granted religious freedom - improved edu - reformed justice system (no torture) - did nothing to end serfdom - "1st servant of the state"Joseph II- ruler of Austria from 1780-1790 - son/successor of Maria Theresa - legal reforms - freedom of press - religious freedoms for all - freedom of serfs - changes reversed after his deathCatherine the Great- ruler of Russia from 1762-1796 - most admired monarch of the philosophes - did not achieve any of initial goals, kept serfs captive - expanded Russia to Black Sea, into PolandThe colonists were growing in population, and gaining a sense of loyalty to their local colonial government, not BritainWhy did Britain feel the need to pass the Navigation Acts?Navigation ActAct passed by Britain that: - allowed colonies to export only with Britain - hiked up taxes on French and Dutch imported goodsStamp ActAct passed by Britain that: - paid off debt run up by the British in the French-Indian War - made colonists have to pay a tax to have an official stamp on wills, deeds, newspapers, and other paper goodsTaxation without Representation-colonies had no Parliament-like group to make sure they got fair treatmentWhat phrase did the colonists use to explain their outrage over the Stamp Act?close down Boston harborIn response to the Boston Tea Party, George III had the British navyBoston Tea PartyAfter the colonists pelted the British with snowballs, the British killed 5 colonists. In response, the colonists conducted theLexington and Concord MassachusettsCities where the American Revolution initially broke outprotest the treatment of BostonThe First Continental Congress was meant todecide whether to raise an army and who would lead them, and the making of the Dec of IndThe Second Continental Congress was meant toThomas jeffersonAuthor of Dec of IndLocke and his three unalienable rightsPhilosophies stated in the Dec of Independence coincide with what philosopherFr and Amer combined forces trapping general cornwallis of GB in Yorktown, VAHow did the colony's secure victory in the later stages of the warThe colonists showing strength through their victory at the Battle of SaratogaWhat made France finally enter the Rev War1) stronger will to fight 2) arrogant Br. generals made careless mistakes 3) Br. were fighting a long way from home 4) Amer. had France on their sideFour reasons for the colonist's victory in Rev WarArticles of confederationcause for creating a weak, loosely joined group of states in the beginning of america's existenceLocke, Montesquieu, RousseauThe constiutional convention was full of men familiar with the philosophy ofCongressThe Articles established just one branch of government, called theRousseauthe constitution allowing the people to vote for senators and the president is a similarity to which philosopher's views?Lockethe constitution's representative gov't reflected which philosopher's views?VoltaireBill of Rights providing freedom of speech and religion reflectedchecks and balancesa system was built in where each branch of government had a check on the other branches of government. This is known asfederal systema government divided between national and state governmentsconstitution, too much powerThe Federalists supported the ________, while the anti federalists thought the central government was __________Bill of RightsIn order to guarantee the rights of the people, this was added to the Constitution, or 10 ammendmentsinspired carry outEnlightenment thinkers ______ the revolution, they did not _________ the revolutionsalutary neglectwhen a law is in place but not being enforced