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CNST 1361 CH5 Project Chronology Notes
Terms in this set (91)
The process of making a facility phases
1. Starts as an idea
2. Idea is combined with money and a project is born
3. Project is developed into drawings and specifications
4. It is then built
5. When complete turned over to owner as a finished facility
Why will a facility be renovated?
either to renew obsolete systems or change its use.
When a facility is renovated
It begins a new life span even though it is not a new construction.
construction activity is the result of what?
Basic economic demand
construction activity tends to foster what?
further Construction activity
private corporations are constantly searching for new opportunities to invest profits from previous business ventures—opportunities that what??
In turn result in expansion of business activity.
Demographics and market analyses are used for what?
To forecast future growth areas in the country.
before money is invested in an area what is done?
An analysis is usually performed to examine the proposed investment from several stand points
Feasibility Analysis: First step
There must be a demand for the specific service or product
Feasibility Analysis: Second step
The cost of actual construction must be taken into account
The decision about whether or not to move a project into design depends
- on cost of money
- market demand
Feasibility Analysis: Third step
The cost of money itself can be a key factor.
Most construction projects use what
Feasibility Analysis: Last step
The timing of the project can be very important
What term is used to describe the time of a construction project between conception and completion.
During Interim Period what can change during this process?
the market can change radically
- sometimes in favor of the investor and sometimes not.
During the early analysis stage, the owner often consults with who?
Architects and Construction professionals
During the early analysis stage what does the architect provide for the owner?
early design advice
During the early analysis stage what does the Construction professional provide for the owner?
offer cost and constructability advice
The advice of an Architect and construction professional gives the owner what?
The capability to make a more informed decision about the feasibility of a specific project.
What elements must be analyzed before making a decision of either to go forward with a construction of a project or cancel it ?
- market need
- cost of construction
- financing costs
- time to market
After a project is checked for feasibility analysis and is found to be profitable for the investor, What is the next step for the owner?
Lining up financial backing for some of the work as usually investors might have some money but not enough to fund a project 100%
If the owner has went through the steps of checking the feasibility of a project and has financial backing for the project what the next step??
The design of the project
During the design of the construction project who does a owner hire ?
Owner hires a design professional
If the Owner chooses to use a construction management mode then besides hiring a design professional only, who else does he hire ??
A construction professional
During the design of a project what kind of information can a construction professional provide for the owner ?
Throughout the design process
The Design of a project is divided into what??
distinct stages so that the owner can review the progress at milestone points along the way
The Defintion of a program in construction
A written statement of the requirements of the building
What does a program in construction describe?
- The space needed
- The services required in those spaces
- The relationships of the functions to be performed in the building
Who can write a program for a building ?
-User of building
-A professional hired
A concisely written project objective matched to the owner's budget and schedule
An investigation of different design alternatives that meet the program
A continuation and refinement of the selected design scheme accomplished on a system-by-system basis
Construction Documents (CD)
The preparation of the final documents used to describe the work to the builders
What are the four phases of the project design
3. Design development
4. Construction Documents
During the making of the program it is important for what ??
Extensive involvement of the user as this is where unique and specific requirements are written down
the nature of the programming process depends on two things:
the sophistication of the owner and the complexity of the proposed facility.
What can a construction professional provide for the making of a program?
-Providing early cost estimates
-Advice on constructability
During the program the owner uses what to check the financial feasibility of the project?
order of magnitude or square foot estimates
During the making of the Program cost is considered in relationship to what?
To the schedule
When the Programming is complete, the owner has information for what?
The needed size of the project in relation to the requirements of the users;
the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems;
vertical and horizontal circulation;
After the program of a building is done what happens next
The designer can begin the actual design of the project
The Stage in which the designer defines the building's characteristics in a number of ways.
Before a schematic design begins what needs to happen first ?
Owner must select a site for building
Site investigations done by the owner give the designer information about what??
soil conditions and makeup, which in large part determine the type of foundation and structure possible for the particular site.
If the construction professionals continue their involvement during this stage, they may develop early conceptual estimates for the owner. their advice regarding what?
construction feasibility of the proposed design options helps identify materials that may be difficult to obtain in the current marketplace and items that will need to be purchased early because of the lead time needed for fabrication and delivery.
When the schematic design is complete, What information developed to date is used to factor into a decision?
- market information,
- financing costs,
- construction costs,
When the project team enters design development, it pursues what?
a single-design concept.
What is the purpose of the design development stage
to refine the design and obtain detailed information from the users about their requirements.
During what phase does the owner, the architect, and (if applicable) the construction professional finalize the design of the major building systems—for example, structural, plumbing, elevator, roofing, mechanical, exterior facade, and electrical.
Design development phase
During the phase of Design development estimates done at this point are probably the what ??
most important of the job because there is now sufficient information to generate real numbers from real subcontractors.
After having done complete design development phase there should be no what??
surprises big enough to cause the project to be abandoned.
In the last phase of design who creates the Construction Documents??
the architect creates the final working construction documents.
What are the Construction documents used for ?
used to bid the job for construction and to build the job in the field.
Why are the construction documents important ?
these docu- ments are particularly important because they represent the work as it will be actually constructed. t
Construction Documents should meet what?
the program criteria determined during the programming stage, reflect the design as agreed upon at the schematic phase, and refine all the detailed work that went into the design development phase.
What if the Construction documents waver from any of these agreed-upon criteria what can happen?
Problems may ensue during construction that could cost the owner money and time.
is defined as the overall process of finding and purchasing the materials called for in the contract and hiring the best subcontractors to build the project.
traditional contracting mode,
the owner, with the architect's assistance, requests bids from a list of qualified contractors.
During the Procurement the contractors and their subcontractors prepare what?
their best estimate of what they believe the project will cost them to complete.
construction management mode
the project documents are divided into bid packages, which are logical subdivisions of work based on typical contractor specializations; for example, the structural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing work are each bid on separately.
What are two modes that can be used to hire many subcontractors that will assemble the project??
- traditional contracting mode,
- construction management mode
Both the architect and the construction manager help the owner evaluate these bid in which mode ?
construction management mode
Sometimes the owner must purchase what before a contractor is hired to do the work ?
equipment or materials
equipment or materials purchased before a contractor is hired to do the work are known as what ?
long-lead items and are usually purchased early because they take a longer time to be fabricated than the construction schedule allows for.
long-lead items are often identified during which phase?
When a contractor is hired, what are usually assigned to him or her for coordination and installation?
Once the procurement process has been completed, what of the project can begin ?
the main element involved in construction is the task of what?
managing and coordinating the field operations.
managing and coordinating the field operations can be done how ?
- scheduling the crews in the proper sequence,
- choosing the most efficient and safe construction techniques and methods,
- directing the production process for the building activities.
to accomplish this task of managing and coordinating the field operations, the construction professional must order what?
the correct materials; ensure an adequate supply of the necessary tools and equipment; and monitor schedule, cost, and quality.
contract administration is a team effort, involving the construction manager, the designer, and the owner; and it often requires what?
meetings and other forms of communication to deal with problems quickly and effectively so that the project can remain on schedule.
Leadership in energy and environmental Design (LEED)
has established a road map that can be used by design/build teams to construct more sus- tainable (green) building projects.
In fol- lowing the LeeD approach, building teams take into consideration five key areas:
- sustainable site development,
- water savings,
- energy efficiency,
- materials selection,
- indoor environmental quality.
after actual construction is complete, what happens next?
the project is turned over to the owner for use during the rest of its economic life
Often this turnover involves what?
complicated technical issues and problems.
Turnover and Startup is often what?
be one of the more intense stages of creating a project.
At the end of its useful life, a project or facility may meet any one of a number of fates as in ?
It may be closed down or simply abandoned.
It may be disassembled or removed.
It may also be renovated or overhauled and thereby brought back to peak operating condition or may be remodeled and converted to another use.
For a project to undergo renovation or remodeling, the owner must perform what?
An economic and financial analysis to determine if the new investment is viable. thus, the facility and the owner begin a new life cycle.
- First are those who analyze the need for the facility and decide whether it is economically and programmatically feasible.
- then the project enters the design/build phase.
- architects are hired to design it.
- construction professionals are hired to carry out the actual assembly and erection process.
All parties, no matter what the contractual arrangement, need to what?
Work in harmony to fulfill the many functions that must be performed.
The procurement phase precedes the design phase since it involves the bidding and award of architect services. true or false?
the feasibility stage of a project requires heavy owner involvement. true or false?
It is imperative for project success that the feasibility, design, procurement, construction,
turnover, and operation stages described in this chapter occur in linear fashion. that is, no
stage should proceed without the prior stage being completed. true or false?
Project design typically proceeds as follows: programming, design development, schematic,
and construction documents. true or false?
programming, schematic, design development and construction documents.
In that order
As interest rates increase, income in future years becomes more valuable in offsetting up-front construction costs. true or false?
advertising for subcontractors, review of subcontractors' bids, and awarding of contracts
occurs during which project phase?
As-built drawings, warranties, guarantees, and operation manuals are all provided to the
owner during which project phase?
a. Feasibility analysis
The production of drawings and specifications occurs in which project phase?
a. Feasibility analysis
Which of the following are considered in determining the feasibility of a project?
a. cost of money
b. estimated cost
c. Market demand
d. project timing
e. all of the above
E. All of the above
The design of project systems occurs during which of the following design phases?
c. Design development
d. construction documents
e. None of the above
C. Design Development
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Construction Project Management
Chapter 2: Construction Contracting Methods
Chapter 3: The Nature of Contracts
Construction Management - Project Delivery Methods
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