Western Civ Chapter 1-4
Terms in this set (68)
The knowledge and adaptive behavior created by communities that helps them to mediate between themselves and the natural world through time
The term used by archaeologists to describe a society differentiated by levels of wealth and power, and in which military, religious, economic, and political control are based in cities.
The New Stone Age, characterized by the development of agriculture and the use of stone tools.
Homo sapiens sapiens
Scientific term meaning 'most intelligent people' applied to physically and intellectually modern human beings that first appeared between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago in Africa
This arc of land stretching from the Jordan River to the Euphrates River was the place where food production and settled communities first appeared in southwest Asia (the Middle East) 25 miles wide.
A very large stone used in prehistoric European monuments between 5000 and 1500B.C.E.
Type of economic system characteristic of ancient Mesopotamian societies. The central political authority controls all agricultural resources and their redistribution
Large political formation consisting of different kingdoms or territories outside the boundaries of the states that control them
The belief in many gods
Monumental tiered or terraced temple characteristic of ancient Mesopotamia
The practice of discerning the future by looking for messages imprinted in nature
The process of reasoning that formulates general hypotheses and theories on the basis of specific observation and the accumulation of data
A kind of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols are pressed into clay tablets to indicate words and ideas, Cuneiform writing originated in ancient Sumer
A social or cultural system in which men occupy the positions of power; in a family system, a father-centered household
In ancient Near Eastern history, the period in Egyptian history from ca 2680-2200 B.C.E., formed by the unification of the kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lowe Egypt
Ancient Egyptian concept of the fundamental order established by the gods
Ancient Egyptian system of writing that represented both sounds and objects
In ancient Near Eastern history, refers to the period of Egyptian history from 2040 to 1720 B.C.E.
In ancient Near Eastern history, the period in Egyptian history from 1550 to 1150 B.C.E. During the New Kingdom, Egyptian kings first took the title of pharaoh and established an empire that reached to the Euphrates River
Title for the Egyptian king, used during the New Kingdom period
The chief minister of state in New Kingdom Egypt, the vizier supervised the administration of the entire kingdom.
the belief in only one god, first attributed to the ancient Hebrews. Monotheism is the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Zoroastrianism
Late Bronze Age
The period from 1500 to 1100 B.C.E. characterized by an unprecedented degree of international trade and diplomatic exchange
Parent language of a majority of modern European languages as well as modern Armenian and Persian; sometimes used to refer to the people who spoke this language.
A social or cultural system in which family lineage is traced through the mother and/or in which women hold significant power
the earliest written form of Greek, used by the Mycenaeans
Late Bronze Age social system that concentrated religious, economic, political, and military power in the hands of an elite, who lived apart from most people in monumental fortified compounds
name given by the Egyptians to the diverse groups of migrants whose attacks helped bring the International Bronze Age to an end
peasants who existed outside the palace system of the Late Bronze Age; often seen as bandits
historical period following the Bronze Age; marked by the prevalent use of iron
the period of Jewish history between the destruction of Solomon's temple in Jerusalem by Babylonian armies in 587 B.C.E. and 538 B.C.E. when Cyrus of Persia permitted Jews to return to Palestine and rebuild the temple
the practice of blending foreign religious beliefs with an indigenous religious system; a common practice throughout the Roman Empire
the worship of Yahweh("Jehovah"); the form of early Israelite religious belief
an important phase in the development of what became Judaism. In the ninth century B.C.E., Hebrew religious reformers, or prophets, demanded the transformation of religious and economic practices to reflect ideals of social justice and religious purity
the first five books of the Hebrew Bible
most commonly, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible; also used to refer to the whole body of Jewish sacred writings and traditions
A self-governing Greek city-state
the defensible hilltop around which a polis grew. In classical Athens, the Acropolis was the site of the Parthenon(Temple of Athena)
an open area in the town center of a Greek polis that served as a market and a place for informal discussion
Greek athletic contests held in Olympia every four years between 776 B.C.E. and 217 B.C.E.
Greek soldiers in the Archaic Age who could afford their own weapons, Hoplite tactics made soldiers fighting as a group dependent on one another. This contributed to the internal cohesion of the polis and eventually to the rise of democracy
the military formation favored by hoplite soldiers. Standing shoulder to shoulder in ranks often eight men deep, hoplites moved in unison and depended on one another for protection
rulers in Greek city-states, usually members of the aristocracy, who seized power illegitimately rather than acquiring it by heredity or election. Tyrants often gained political support from the hoplites and the poor
a government consisting of only a few people rather than the entire community
a form of government in which citizens devise their own governing institutions and choose their leaders; began in Athens, Greece, in the fifth century B.C.E.
the brutally oppressed subject peoples of the Spartans. Tied to the land they farmed for Spartan masters, they were treated little better than beasts of burden
a council of 400 male citizens established by Solon in Greece in the sixth century B.C.E. It served as an advisory body for the general assembly of all male citizens
the monotheistic religion of Persia founded by Zoroaster that became the official religion of the Persian Empire
a term used to describe a philosophy or a religion in which a rigid distinction is made between body and mind, good and evil, or the material world and the immaterial world
Greek warships with three banks of oars. Triremes manned by the poorest people of Athenian society became the backbone of the Athenian empire
the alliance among many Greek cities organized by Athens in 478 B.C.E. in order to fight Persian forces in the easter Aegean Sea. The Athenians gradually turned the Delian League into the Athenian Empire
Elite courtesans in ancient Greece who provided intellectual as well as sexual companionship
professional educations who traveled throughout the ancient Greek world, teaching many subjects. Their goal was to teach people the best ways to lead better lives
in the philosophical teachings of Plato, these are eternal, unchanging absolutes such as Truth, Justice, and Beauty that represent true reality, as opposed to the approximations of reality that humans encounter in everyday life
the word used to describe the civilization, based on that of Greece, that developed in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great
a term used by Greeks to describe the people who did non speak Greek and who were therefore considered uncivilized
Elite regiments of cavalrymen armed with heavy lances formed by Philip of Macedon in the fourth century B.C.E.
Persian provincial governors who collected taxes and oversaw the bureaucracy
the first Celtic civilization in central Europe; from about 750 to about 450 B.C.E., Hallstatt Celts spread throughout Europe
La Tene culture
a phase of Celtic civilization that lasted from about 450 to 200 B.C.E. La Tene culture became strong especially in the regions of the Rhine and Danube Rivers
the standard version of the Greek language spoken throughout the Hellenistic world
the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)
a dynamic style in art, architecture, and music that was intended to elicit an emotional response. Baroque buildings were massive, imposing structures with sweeping facades. The baroque style represented a development of Greek classicism in the Hellenistic period. In the seventeenth century the baroque style was closely associated with royal absolutism
a style of Hellenistic poetry that demonstrated a command of meter and language and appealed more to the intellect than the emotions
followers of the teachings of the philosopher Epicurus (341-271 B.C.E.) Epicureans tried to gain peace of mind by choosing pleasures rationally
followers of he philosophy developed by Zeno of Citium (ca 335- ca 263 B.C.E.) that urged acceptance of fate while participating fully in everyday life
followers of the teachings of Antisthenes (ca 445-360 B.C.E.) who rejected pleasures, possessions, and social conventions to find peace of mind
a theory concerning the structure and nature of the universe such as those proposed by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C.E. and Copernicus in the sixteenth century