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skilled craftspeople who make things out of pottery, finley carved, or woven goods


a form of trade in which people exchange goods and services without the use of money

Bronze Age

a period of human culture between the Stone Age and the Iron Age, characterized by the use of weapons and implements made of bronze

City state

a city that controls much of the land around it and has its own government


a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology

Cultural Diffusion

The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another


of or relating to the tarsal bones (or other wedge-shaped bones)


A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake

Dynastic Cycle

the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties.


a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family


a group of diverse companies under common ownership and run as a single organization

Fertile Crescent

a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates


the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th C


Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

Harappan Civilization

another name for the indus valley civilization that arose along the indus river, possibly as early as 7000 BC; characterized by sophisticated city planning


a system of writing using symbols or pictures


the act of starting something for the first time

Mandate of Heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source


the land between the Tigris and Euphrates


seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons

Oracle Bones

animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future


a document written on papyrus


the title of the ancient Egyptian kings


belief in multiple Gods


a massive memorial with a square base and four triangular sides


professional record keepers


the special line of work you have adopted as your career


a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent


the belief in government by divine guidance


a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians

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