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AP BIOLOGY - BIG IDEA #3
Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes.
Terms in this set (53)
Any of the alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
The specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached.
..., The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
..., The situation in which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote because both alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways.
..., In prokaryotes, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined. In ciliates, a sexual process in which two cells exchange haploid micronuclei.
..., The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
..., The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II.
...(deoxyribonucleic acid) A double-stranted, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogeneous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T); capable of being replicated and determining that inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
..., A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of one DNA fragment (such as an Okazaki fragment) to the 5' end of another DNA fragment (such as a growing DNA chain).
..., The addition of methyl groups (—CH3) to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.
..., An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA (for example, at a replication fork) by the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of an existing chain. There are several different DNA polymerases; DNA polymerase III and DNA polymerase I play major roles in DNA replication in prokaryotes.
..., process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission
..., A type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited.
..., The less condensed form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription.
..., an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
..., an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
..., what males are said to be because they only have one X-chromosome
..., Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compacted during interphase and is generally not transcribed.
..., having two different alleles for a particular gene
..., A pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother. Also called homologs, or a homologous pair.
..., having two identical alleles for a given gene
..., The situation in which the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele.
..., One of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
usually off, but can be stimulated (induced) when a specific small molecule interacts with a regulatory protein (example lac operon)
..., structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
..., a discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork
..., the new complementary DNA strand synthesized continuously along the template strand toward the replication fork in the mandatory 5' to 3' direction
..., genes that tend to be inherited together (ex. red hair and freckles) because they are located close enough together on a chromosome
..., A type of phage replicative cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage, is replicated along with the chromosome, and does not kill the host.
..., A type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell.
..., A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. It results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
..., branch of genetics concerned with patterns and processes of inheritance
..., period of nuclear cell division in which two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes, A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.
..., An accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.
..., The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
..., in prokaryotes, a set of genes, often encoding the proteins needed for a complete metabolic pathway, including both the structural genes and a common promoter and operator that control transcription of the structural genes
..., outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype
..., a short, thick hair-like protein structure that allows a bacterium to attach to other bacteria and surfaces
..., An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
..., A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. It is the result of an accident of cell division
..., a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
..., a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
..., operon that is usually on; binding of a repressor to the operator shuts off transcription
..., A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
..., Traits carried on the X chromosome, more common in males for these disorders because they only have 1 X chromosome (ex. color blindness, hemophilia)
..., One type of eukaryotic mRNA processing in which introns are removed from the primary transcript and exons are ligated together.
..., The pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
..., the tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of a eukaryotic chromosome's DNA molecule that protects the organism's genes from being eroded during successive rounds of replication
..., The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another., (genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
..., (1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
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