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AP Human Gepgraphy Chapter 10 Key Terms Rubenstein Book


the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain


grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season

Subsistence agriculture

agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family

Commercial agriculture

agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm

Prime agricultural land

the most productive farmland


commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through owner ship by large corporations

Shifting cultivation

a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period

Slash-and-burn agriculture

another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris


a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning

Pastoral nomadism

a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals


the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures


grass or other plants grown for feeding razing animals, as well as land used for grazing

Intensive subsistence agriculture

a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land


a flooded field for growing rice


Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah


husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing


to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it


to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind


the outer covering of a seed

Double cropping

harvesting twice a year from the same field

Crop rotation

the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil


a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country

Cereal grain

a grass yielding grain for food


the area surrounding a cit from which milk is supplied


seed of cereal grass


wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer


wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer


a machine that cuts cereal grain standing in the field


a machine that reaps, threshes, an cleans grain while moving over a field


a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area


the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers

Truck farming

commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English world meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities

Sustainable agriculture

agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family

Ridge tillage

system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation


degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting

Green revolution

rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers

Wet Rice

Rice planted odryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.

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