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37 terms

AP Human Geography Chapter 10 Vocabulary

AP Human Gepgraphy Chapter 10 Key Terms Rubenstein Book
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Agriculture
the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Crop
grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
Subsistence agriculture
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Commercial agriculture
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Prime agricultural land
the most productive farmland
Agribusiness
commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through owner ship by large corporations
Shifting cultivation
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Slash-and-burn agriculture
another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Swidden
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
Pastoral nomadism
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Transhumance
the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Pasture
grass or other plants grown for feeding razing animals, as well as land used for grazing
Intensive subsistence agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Sawah
a flooded field for growing rice
Paddy
Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah
Chaff
husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
Thresh
to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
Winnow
to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
Hull
the outer covering of a seed
Double cropping
harvesting twice a year from the same field
Crop rotation
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Plantation
a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Cereal grain
a grass yielding grain for food
Milkshed
the area surrounding a cit from which milk is supplied
Grain
seed of cereal grass
Winter-wheat
wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer
Spring-wheat
wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Reaper
a machine that cuts cereal grain standing in the field
Combine
a machine that reaps, threshes, an cleans grain while moving over a field
Ranching
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Horticulture
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Truck farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English world meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Sustainable agriculture
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Ridge tillage
system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Desertification
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
Green revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Wet Rice
Rice planted odryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.