5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What is specific heat?
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Methyl.
- How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many single covalent bonds can it form?
- Organic molecules must always contain what?
- What is the pH scale?
- a 4 and 4
- b Methyl (−CH₃) (sex hormones, DNA methylation (when it gets tagged onto your DNA); C single bonded to 3 H's
−C − H
Ex: 5-methyl cytidine
- c Resistance to change in temperature
- d Carbon and Hydrogen
- e pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
5 Multiple choice questions
- Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
- Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
- Sulfhydryl (−SH or HS−) (protein cross-linking, stabilizes structure)
Ex: Covalent bonding w/ other sulfhydryls (disulfide bridge)
- Hydrogen bonds in water hold each other together stronger than they'd bond to the air, for example. Ex: Jesus Christ lizard can walk on water because of it's surface tension; a dragonfly has non-polar exoskeleton so water beads on it
(see p. 1 slide 4 in ch. 3)
5 True/False questions
Describe how and why hydrogen bonds form in water. → Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.
Describe the terms: solvent, solute, and solution. → Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
Why is carbon the basic building element of life? → WATER!
How does waters specific heat compare to other solvents specific heat? What properties does it have that allows this? What affect does this have on the climate? → Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die
How do acids and bases affect pH? → Acids raise the concentration of H⁺ ions in an aqueous solution (decreases the pH number)
Bases lower the concentration of H⁺ ions (increases the pH number)