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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Phosphate.
    Example?
  2. Describe the terms: solvent, solute, and solution.
  3. What is heat of vaporization? How does it relate to evaporative cooling? What affect does it have on living organisms?
  4. What are the different types of isomers (changes) and how are they different?
  5. What are the differences between a hydrophilic and hydrophobic substance?
  1. a 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
    2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
  2. b Phosphate (−OPO₃²⁻) (acid: DNA, cell membrane, ATP); P double to O, single to O, 2 O⁻

    O

    −O−P−O⁻
    |
    O⁻

    Ex: glycerol phosphate
  3. c Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
    Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
    Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
  4. d Hydrophilic - attracted to water; polar or ionic; has charge
    Hydrophobic - repels water; nonpolar; no charge
  5. e Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
    −OH (may be written HO-)
    Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
  2. 4 and 4
  3. Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)
  4. Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
  5. Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl

5 True/False questions

  1. Organic molecules must always contain what?Carbon and Hydrogen

          

  2. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Carbonyl.
    Example?
    Carboxyl (-COOH) acidic properties, components of many biologically important molecules; C double bonded to O and single to OH

    O

    −C
    |
    OH

    Ex: Formic acid or acetic acid

          

  3. Describe surface tension and give an example relating to living organisms.Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
    Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
    Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)

          

  4. Describe how and why hydrogen bonds form in water.Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.

          

  5. How does waters specific heat compare to other solvents specific heat? What properties does it have that allows this? What affect does this have on the climate?Waters specific heat is much higher that that of other solvents; this is because of hydrogen bonding; this keeps temperatures of places near/on bodies of water consistent

          

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