5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What is the pH scale?
- What is specific heat?
- Organic molecules must always contain what?
- Do the functional groups have an impact on life? Give an example.
- Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa.
- a pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
- b Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
- c Resistance to change in temperature
- d Carbon and Hydrogen
- e Yes. Ex: tiny tag from a functional group determines whether we are males or females
5 Multiple choice questions
- Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
- 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
- Hydrogen bonds in water hold each other together stronger than they'd bond to the air, for example. Ex: Jesus Christ lizard can walk on water because of it's surface tension; a dragonfly has non-polar exoskeleton so water beads on it
- Cohesion and Adhesion.
Cohesion - waters ability to stick to ITSELF (other water molecules)
Adhesion - waters ability to stick to OTHER THINGS that are POLAR
- Hydrophilic - attracted to water; polar or ionic; has charge
Hydrophobic - repels water; nonpolar; no charge
5 True/False questions
What is heat of vaporization? How does it relate to evaporative cooling? What affect does it have on living organisms? → Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die
What are functional groups? Names? → Small organic molecules with great effects:
Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Sulfhydryl.
Example? → Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
−OH (may be written HO-)
Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many single covalent bonds can it form? → Carbon and Hydrogen
Why is carbon the basic building element of life? → Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)