5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- How do acids and bases affect pH?
- What are emergent properties of water?
- Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life?
- What are the different types of isomers (changes) and how are they different?
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Amino.
- a Acids raise the concentration of H⁺ ions in an aqueous solution (decreases the pH number)
Bases lower the concentration of H⁺ ions (increases the pH number)
- b Hydrogen bonds keep the molecules spread out, so they don't pack together, making them less dense.
The floating ice insulates the body of water underneath it; if ice sank, then all the bodies of water would freeze solid, making life unlivable.
- c Amino (-NH₂) (acts as a base, amino acids); N single bonded to 2 H's
- d 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
- e Special abilities water takes on when combined with itself (only works with large amounts of molecules, not just a single molecule)
5 Multiple choice questions
- 4 and 4
- Carboxyl (-COOH) acidic properties, components of many biologically important molecules; C double bonded to O and single to OH
Ex: Formic acid or acetic acid
- Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
- Carbonyl (>CO) (ketones, aldehydes, sugars); C double bonded to O
Ex: Acetone, the simplest ketone
- Phosphate (−OPO₃²⁻) (acid: DNA, cell membrane, ATP); P double to O, single to O, 2 O⁻
Ex: glycerol phosphate
5 True/False questions
What is a hydrocarbon? Polar or non-polar? → Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)
What is the pH scale? → A log scale. Each change is 10 times. So when we go up or down, we add a zero to the end.
What is the Universal Solvent? → pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
What is heat of vaporization? How does it relate to evaporative cooling? What affect does it have on living organisms? → Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Hydroxyl.
Example? → Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
−OH (may be written HO-)
Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol