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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life?
  2. What is a buffer?
  3. What are functional groups? Names?
  4. What is the Universal Solvent?
  5. What two properties of water do plants take advantage of, to move water against gravity, explain?
  1. a Hydrogen bonds keep the molecules spread out, so they don't pack together, making them less dense.
    The floating ice insulates the body of water underneath it; if ice sank, then all the bodies of water would freeze solid, making life unlivable.
  2. b Small organic molecules with great effects:
    Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
  3. c Cohesion and Adhesion.
    Cohesion - waters ability to stick to ITSELF (other water molecules)
    Adhesion - waters ability to stick to OTHER THINGS that are POLAR
  4. d WATER!
  5. e Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
    −OH (may be written HO-)
    Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
  2. Fix C from atmospheric CO₂ (ex: Plants w/ photosynthesis)
  3. Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
    Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
    Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
  4. Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)
  5. Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.

5 True/False questions

  1. What are the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in one liter of pure water?H⁺ = 10⁻⁷ and OH⁻ = 10⁻⁷ Equation: [H⁺][ OH⁻] = 10⁻¹⁴ (always = to 14)

          

  2. Why is carbon the basic building element of life?WATER!

          

  3. What are emergent properties of water?Small organic molecules with great effects:
    Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl

          

  4. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Amino.
    Example?
    Methyl (−CH₃) (sex hormones, DNA methylation (when it gets tagged onto your DNA); C single bonded to 3 H's

    H
    |
    −C − H
    |
    H

    Ex: 5-methyl cytidine

          

  5. What scale is pH?A log scale. Each change is 10 times. So when we go up or down, we add a zero to the end.