5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What are the different types of isomers (changes) and how are they different?
- Describe the terms: solvent, solute, and solution.
- What are the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in one liter of pure water?
- What scale is pH?
- What are functional groups? Names?
- a Small organic molecules with great effects:
Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
- b H⁺ = 10⁻⁷ and OH⁻ = 10⁻⁷ Equation: [H⁺][ OH⁻] = 10⁻¹⁴ (always = to 14)
- c A log scale. Each change is 10 times. So when we go up or down, we add a zero to the end.
- d Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
- e 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
5 Multiple choice questions
- Waters specific heat is much higher that that of other solvents; this is because of hydrogen bonding; this keeps temperatures of places near/on bodies of water consistent
- Hydrophilic - attracted to water; polar or ionic; has charge
Hydrophobic - repels water; nonpolar; no charge
- pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
- Special abilities water takes on when combined with itself (only works with large amounts of molecules, not just a single molecule)
- Carboxyl (-COOH) acidic properties, components of many biologically important molecules; C double bonded to O and single to OH
Ex: Formic acid or acetic acid
5 True/False questions
What are primary producers? → Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
Does form impact function? → Resistance to change in temperature
What two properties of water do plants take advantage of, to move water against gravity, explain? → Yes. Ex: tiny tag from a functional group determines whether we are males or females
How do acids and bases affect pH? → Acids raise the concentration of H⁺ ions in an aqueous solution (decreases the pH number)
Bases lower the concentration of H⁺ ions (increases the pH number)
Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life? → Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)