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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. What is the pH scale?
  2. What is specific heat?
  3. Organic molecules must always contain what?
  4. Do the functional groups have an impact on life? Give an example.
  5. Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa.
  1. a pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
  2. b Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
  3. c Resistance to change in temperature
  4. d Carbon and Hydrogen
  5. e Yes. Ex: tiny tag from a functional group determines whether we are males or females

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
  2. 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
    2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
  3. Hydrogen bonds in water hold each other together stronger than they'd bond to the air, for example. Ex: Jesus Christ lizard can walk on water because of it's surface tension; a dragonfly has non-polar exoskeleton so water beads on it
  4. Cohesion and Adhesion.
    Cohesion - waters ability to stick to ITSELF (other water molecules)
    Adhesion - waters ability to stick to OTHER THINGS that are POLAR
  5. Hydrophilic - attracted to water; polar or ionic; has charge
    Hydrophobic - repels water; nonpolar; no charge

5 True/False questions

  1. What is heat of vaporization? How does it relate to evaporative cooling? What affect does it have on living organisms?Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die


  2. What are functional groups? Names?Small organic molecules with great effects:
    Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl


  3. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Sulfhydryl.
    Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
    −OH (may be written HO-)
    Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol


  4. How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many single covalent bonds can it form?Carbon and Hydrogen


  5. Why is carbon the basic building element of life?Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)