5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Amino.
- Does form impact function?
- What is a hydrocarbon? Polar or non-polar?
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Methyl.
- How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many single covalent bonds can it form?
- a 4 and 4
- b Methyl (−CH₃) (sex hormones, DNA methylation (when it gets tagged onto your DNA); C single bonded to 3 H's
−C − H
Ex: 5-methyl cytidine
- c YES!
- d Amino (-NH₂) (acts as a base, amino acids); N single bonded to 2 H's
- e Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)
5 Multiple choice questions
- Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
- pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
- Waters specific heat is much higher that that of other solvents; this is because of hydrogen bonding; this keeps temperatures of places near/on bodies of water consistent
- Sulfhydryl (−SH or HS−) (protein cross-linking, stabilizes structure)
Ex: Covalent bonding w/ other sulfhydryls (disulfide bridge)
- Carbonyl (>CO) (ketones, aldehydes, sugars); C double bonded to O
Ex: Acetone, the simplest ketone
5 True/False questions
What are the differences between a hydrophilic and hydrophobic substance? → 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Hydroxyl.
Example? → Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
−OH (may be written HO-)
Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
How do acids and bases affect pH? → Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
What is heat of vaporization? How does it relate to evaporative cooling? What affect does it have on living organisms? → Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die
What are the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in one liter of pure water? → Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².