5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Does form impact function?
- Describe how and why hydrogen bonds form in water.
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Methyl.
- Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life?
- What is the Universal Solvent?
- a Hydrogen bonds keep the molecules spread out, so they don't pack together, making them less dense.
The floating ice insulates the body of water underneath it; if ice sank, then all the bodies of water would freeze solid, making life unlivable.
- b Methyl (−CH₃) (sex hormones, DNA methylation (when it gets tagged onto your DNA); C single bonded to 3 H's
−C − H
Ex: 5-methyl cytidine
- c YES!
- d Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.
- e WATER!
5 Multiple choice questions
- Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die
- Small organic molecules with great effects:
Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
- Fix C from atmospheric CO₂ (ex: Plants w/ photosynthesis)
- Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
- Carbonyl (>CO) (ketones, aldehydes, sugars); C double bonded to O
Ex: Acetone, the simplest ketone
5 True/False questions
Describe surface tension and give an example relating to living organisms. → Hydrogen bonds in water hold each other together stronger than they'd bond to the air, for example. Ex: Jesus Christ lizard can walk on water because of it's surface tension; a dragonfly has non-polar exoskeleton so water beads on it
Be able to recreate hydrogen bonding in water. → Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.
What are the differences between a hydrophilic and hydrophobic substance? → 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Sulfhydryl.
Example? → Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
−OH (may be written HO-)
Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa. → H⁺ = 10⁻⁷ and OH⁻ = 10⁻⁷ Equation: [H⁺][ OH⁻] = 10⁻¹⁴ (always = to 14)