5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Sulfhydryl.
- What is the pH scale?
- What are the different types of isomers (changes) and how are they different?
- How does waters specific heat compare to other solvents specific heat? What properties does it have that allows this? What affect does this have on the climate?
- How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many single covalent bonds can it form?
- a pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
- b Sulfhydryl (−SH or HS−) (protein cross-linking, stabilizes structure)
Ex: Covalent bonding w/ other sulfhydryls (disulfide bridge)
- c 4 and 4
- d Waters specific heat is much higher that that of other solvents; this is because of hydrogen bonding; this keeps temperatures of places near/on bodies of water consistent
- e 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
5 Multiple choice questions
- Acids raise the concentration of H⁺ ions in an aqueous solution (decreases the pH number)
Bases lower the concentration of H⁺ ions (increases the pH number)
- Resistance to change in temperature
- Carbon and Hydrogen
- Small organic molecules with great effects:
Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
- Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
5 True/False questions
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Carboxyl.
Example? → Carboxyl (-COOH) acidic properties, components of many biologically important molecules; C double bonded to O and single to OH
Ex: Formic acid or acetic acid
What is a hydrocarbon? Polar or non-polar? → Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)
Describe the terms: solvent, solute, and solution. → Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life? → Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)
Describe how and why hydrogen bonds form in water. → Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.