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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. How do acids and bases affect pH?
  2. What are emergent properties of water?
  3. Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life?
  4. What are the different types of isomers (changes) and how are they different?
  5. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Amino.
    Example?
  1. a Acids raise the concentration of H⁺ ions in an aqueous solution (decreases the pH number)
    Bases lower the concentration of H⁺ ions (increases the pH number)
  2. b Hydrogen bonds keep the molecules spread out, so they don't pack together, making them less dense.
    The floating ice insulates the body of water underneath it; if ice sank, then all the bodies of water would freeze solid, making life unlivable.
  3. c Amino (-NH₂) (acts as a base, amino acids); N single bonded to 2 H's

    H
    |
    −N
    |
    H

    Ex: Glycine
  4. d 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
    2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
  5. e Special abilities water takes on when combined with itself (only works with large amounts of molecules, not just a single molecule)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. 4 and 4
  2. Carboxyl (-COOH) acidic properties, components of many biologically important molecules; C double bonded to O and single to OH

    O

    −C
    |
    OH

    Ex: Formic acid or acetic acid
  3. Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
  4. Carbonyl (>CO) (ketones, aldehydes, sugars); C double bonded to O

    O

    −C
    |

    Ex: Acetone, the simplest ketone
  5. Phosphate (−OPO₃²⁻) (acid: DNA, cell membrane, ATP); P double to O, single to O, 2 O⁻

    O

    −O−P−O⁻
    |
    O⁻

    Ex: glycerol phosphate

5 True/False questions

  1. What is a hydrocarbon? Polar or non-polar?Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)

          

  2. What is the pH scale?A log scale. Each change is 10 times. So when we go up or down, we add a zero to the end.

          

  3. What is the Universal Solvent?pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution

          

  4. What is heat of vaporization? How does it relate to evaporative cooling? What affect does it have on living organisms?Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die

          

  5. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Hydroxyl.
    Example?
    Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
    −OH (may be written HO-)
    Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol