5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Know functional group NAMES, MOLECULAR FORMULAS, and STRUCTURES!
- How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many single covalent bonds can it form?
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Amino.
- Organic molecules must always contain what?
- What is specific heat?
- a Carbon and Hydrogen
- b Amino (-NH₂) (acts as a base, amino acids); N single bonded to 2 H's
- c Resistance to change in temperature
- d 4 and 4
- e Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
5 Multiple choice questions
- Small organic molecules with great effects:
Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
- Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
- Hydrogen bonds keep the molecules spread out, so they don't pack together, making them less dense.
The floating ice insulates the body of water underneath it; if ice sank, then all the bodies of water would freeze solid, making life unlivable.
- Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
−OH (may be written HO-)
Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
5 True/False questions
What are the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in one liter of pure water? → H⁺ = 10⁻⁷ and OH⁻ = 10⁻⁷ Equation: [H⁺][ OH⁻] = 10⁻¹⁴ (always = to 14)
What are the differences between a hydrophilic and hydrophobic substance? → Hydrophilic - attracted to water; polar or ionic; has charge
Hydrophobic - repels water; nonpolar; no charge
Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa. → Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Carboxyl.
Example? → Carboxyl (-COOH) acidic properties, components of many biologically important molecules; C double bonded to O and single to OH
Ex: Formic acid or acetic acid
What are emergent properties of water? → Special abilities water takes on when combined with itself (only works with large amounts of molecules, not just a single molecule)