43 terms

Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 3 The Biosphere

STUDY
PLAY
ecology (3.1-63)
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
biosphere (3.1-63)
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
species (3.1-63)
a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
population (3.1-64)
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
ecosystem (3.1-64)
all the organisms that live in a place, together with their nonliving environment
community (3.1-64)
assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
biomes (3.1-64)
group of ecosystems with similar climates and typical organisms
biotic factor (3.1*)
any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact
abiotic factor (3.1*)
physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem
autotroph (3.2-67)
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
producer (3.2-67)
organisms that make their own food; also known as autotrophs. The most common example is a plant.
primary producer (3.2*)
first producer of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms (example: plants)
photosynthesis (3.2-68)
process of capturing light energy and using it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as glucose
chemosynthesis (3.2-68)
process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates
heterotroph (3.2-68)
organism that obtains food by consuming (eating) other organisms
consumer (3.2-68)
organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply. Animals, fungi, and protists.
herbivore (3.2-69)
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
carnivore (3.2-69)
organism that obtains energy by eating animals
scavenger (3.2*)
animal that consumes the carcasses of other animals
omnivore (3.2-69)
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
detritivore (3.2-69)
organism that feeds on small pieces of dead plants and animals (detrius), usually in the soil or leaf litter
decomposer (3.2-69)
organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter; examples are bacteria and fungi
Food Chain (3.2-69)
a series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
phytoplankton (3.2*)
..., population of algae and other small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming part of plankton
Food Web (3.2-70)
a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Zooplankton (3.2*)
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments; consumes phytoplankton
trophic level (3.2-70)
Each step in a food chain or food web
Ecological Pyramid (3.2-72)
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
Biomass (3.2-72)
total amount of living material within a given trophic level
biogeochemical cycle (3.3-74)
The exchange of matter through the biosphere; Any of the various chemical cycles, which involve both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems.
Evaporation (3.3-75)
process by which water changes from a liquid into an atmospheric gas
Transpiration (3.3-75)
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
nutrient (3.3-76)
A substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
nitrogen fixation (3.3-78)
Process by which certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas to ammonia
denitrification (3.3-78)
Bacteria convert ammonia back into N
Primary Productivity (3.3-80)
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
limiting nutrient (3.3-80)
Single essential nutrient that limits productivity in an ecosystem.
Algal Bloom (3.3-80)
an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
water cycle (3.3*)
The continual movement of water among Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
niche (3.3*)
The "role" of an organism in its environment.
frugivore (3.3*)
An animal that eats mostly fruit
saprophyte (3.3*)
An organism that feeds on dead matter.
eutrophication (3.3*)
excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.