Monomers are a single building block Polymers are a covalently bonded chain of monomers (give the monomers a function)
Three classes of polymers important to life?
1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Nucleic acids
Does structure determine function?
What is the name of the reaction that builds monomers into polymers?
Dehydration (taking water out); monomers become linked into polymers
What is the name of the reaction that splits polymers into monomers?
Hydrolysis - adding water to split apart large polymers back into individual monomers
Give an example of a Protein, Nucleic Acid, Carbohydrate, and a Lipid.
Protein - animals, like steak, fish, chicken Nucleic Acid - DNA, sugar and phosphate Carbohydrate - Starches - bread, sugar Lipid - oils, animal fats
Name of Protein covalent bond.
Name of Nucleic Acid covalent bond.
Name of Carbohydrate covalent bond.
Name of Lipid covalent bond.
Name of Protein Monomers? Name of Protein Polymers?
AMINO ACIDS (monomer) PEPTIDES ("short" polymers of amino acids) POLYPEPTIDES or PROTEINS ("long" polymers of amino acids) (he'll use polypeptides and proteins interchangeably)
How many Amino Acids are there?
20 (twenty) different Amino Acids
What 2 functional groups must all amino acids have?
AMINO group & CARBOXYL group
What makes proteins unique?
The "R" groups (side-chain), which allows anything to be added there; it's how we differentiate b/w letters of Amino acids.
What do we call the covalent bond between amino acids?
Peptide bonds (the bond (dehydration reaction) b/w Carboxyl & Amino groups, not side (R) groups!)
What are enzymes? (Proteins)
They speed up chemical reactions; each has a different function (and structure); they have "active sites"; they are unaffected by chemical reactions
How many levels of folding do proteins have? Names of the levels?
They have 4 (four) folding levels. 1. Primary 2. Secondary 3. Tertiary 4. Quatemary
What makes a covalent bond?
Sharing of electrons.
What makes an ionic bond?
Gaining or losing of electrons.
What makes a hydrogen bond?
Partial charges attracting to each other. Partial positive and partial negative coming together.
What are Chaperonins?
They help amino acids to fold correctly (because if it doesn't have the correct structure, it doesn't have the correct function!)
What do organisms use proteins for?
For structure and function. (we are made FROM DNA, we are made OF protein)
What is denaturation?
The change due to temperature, pH, or salinity; ex: ceviche w/ lemon juice, eggs on a hot stove, or salted meats to preserve them
What do organisms use nucleic acids for?
store and transmit hereditary information (DNA - info only); genetic code; nucleic acids have a very tight link w/ protein (DNA to Protein)
What are two types of nucleic acids?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
What is the Central Dogma of Biology?
DNA → RNA → PROTEIN
Which is the Original: DNA or RNA? Which is the copy? What is the final product?
DNA is the ORIGINAL; RNA is the copy; Protein is the final product
What is the name of a Nucleic Acid Monomer? What is the name of its Polymer?
Which groups do all Nucleic Acids have? Which group changes?
They all have: Phosphate group and Sugar group Changing group: Nitrogenous base
How many Nitrogenous bases does DNA have? What are their letters?
4 (four) A T C G
What are the two varieties of Nitrogenous bases?
1. Pyrimidines (1 ring structure) 2. Purines (2 ring structure)
What is the name of the covalent bond that forms between nucleotides?
What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA (the original) has T's and no U's (T A C G); Deoxyribose means "sugar without oxygen", so it has only one OH in its sugar structure; it is a Double Helix
RNA (the copy) has U's and no T's (U A C G); Ribose means "sugar", so RNA has 2 OH's (one more O than DNA); it is single stranded
Build a complimentary DNA and RNA strand.
A A C C G (original DNA) T T G G C (complimentary DNA) U U G G C (complimentary RNA)
What is the two-word phrase we use to describe DNA's structure?
What is the complimentary base system?
Each base of one nucleotide has a complimentary base on the other nucleotide (on a DNA double helix); they are bound by H bonds A-T T-A G-C C-G
What do organisms use carbohydrates for?
They are our major form of short-term energy.
What is the name for the Carbohydrate Monomer? Name of its Polymer?
Monosaccharides (energy for right now; glucose/sugar) Polysaccharides (short-term storage energy; complex carbs)
What is the general formula of a carbohydrate?
(CH₂O)n "Carbo" - Carbon "hydrate" - Water
What is the name of the covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides?
What are the characteristics of sugar?
Carbonyl group - Hallmark of Sugar tons of Hydroxyl groups Polar compound (easily dissolves in water)
What are the main carbohydrates used to store energy in a plant? Animal?
Starch: glucose storage in plants; composed of glucose monomers; helical in shape Glycogen: glucose storage in animals; composed of glucose monomers; helical in shape; more branched than starch
What is cellulose?
Polymer composed of glucose; straight (not helical) so it's very compact and supportive; different spatial orientation than starch; not digestible by humans (ex: corn); the single most important structural molecule in the world
What is Chitin?
A structural carbohydrate in animals, in particular fungi invertebrate exoskeletons and fungi cell walls
What do organisms use lipids for?
Solely long-term energy storage
Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
HYDROPHOBIC, so they are extremely hard to break down
What is the name of the covalent bond that forms between these two lipids?
What two molecules make up a fat?
1. Fatty acids 2. Glycerol (where we can make the dehydration reaction happen because Glycerol is basically a carbohydrate)
How many fatty acids can Glycerol hold?
3 (three); can hold up to a triglyceride
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated fats - have no double bond, so they are straight, which means they compact much more easily; most are solids at room temp. (ex: butter, animal fats) Unsaturated fats - one or more double bonds, which results in a kink in the molecule (most are liquids ex: oils)
What are trans fats?
Act the same as Saturated fats because their structure is similar
What are phospholipids? How are they different from fats?
Main components to our cell membranes; they allow us to keep the water inside and outside of our cell separate
What does amphipathic mean? (in relation to phospholipids)
Dual molecule; consists of hydrophilic (polar) head and hydrophobic tails
What kind of lipid is cholesterol?
What is C₆H₁₂O₆ ?
Glucose - one of our main monomers for carbohydrates.
What one molecule that makes up fat allows dehydration to break it apart?