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a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes


a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution


the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other, love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it


An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions


a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.

Congress of Vienna

(September 1814-June 1815); Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon; represented a temporary triumph for the old conservative order; this era of conservatism was best represented by the leadership and policies of Austrian minister

Klemens von Metternich

the Austrian foreign minister who was the leader of the Congress of Vienna and wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression

legitimacy, compensation, balance of power

"legitimacy": meant returning to power the ruling families deposed by more than two decades of revolutionary warfare
"compensation": meant territorially rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to defeat
"balance of power": arranged the map of Europe that never again could one state upset the international order and cause a general war

German Confederation (Bund)

consisted of 39 out of the original 300; sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria; the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 39 states to take action.

Concert of Europe

(1815-1850s); a series of alliances among European nations which was devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions; lasted from congress of Vienna in 1815 until the Crimean War of the 1850s

Quadruple Alliances

England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia talked of a plan to help Spain regain its American possessions

Congress System

The members of the Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet periodically to discuss their common interests and to consider appropriate measures for the maintenance of peace in Europe. This agreement was the beginning of the European "congress system." The congress system was established by the Holy Alliance which included the countries of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. (p.758)

Carlsbad Diet

(1819); called by Metternich; to end the activity of German liberalism and nationalism


a person who supported the Birtish cause in the American Revolution; aka Loyalist; defeated Napoleon

Corn Laws of 1815

English law prohibits the importation of foreign grain. This makes domestic grain more expesive and in turn makes the aristocracy richer, while the poor who have to pay for higher grain now, get poorer. This law sparks mass protests among lower classes

Peterloo Massacre, 1819

A well-organized mass meeting damanding Parlimentary reform that culminated on August 16, 1819 at Saint Peter's Fields outside Manchester. A local magistrate ordered the local militia to move into the crowd, causing panic and death. 11 died and many were injured; the arrest of many radical leaders ensued.

Decembrist Uprising, 1825

political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms, first upper-class revolt against Russia's autocratic system of gov

classical liberalism

a term given to the philosophy of John Locke and advocates of the protection of individual rights and liberties by limiting government power.

Adam Smith

(1723-1790); Scottish economist who advocated economic individualism and laissez faire; wrote Wealth of Nations(1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics

David Ricardo, "iron law of wages"

who justified low wages; famous for
in which he argued that raising wages arbitrarily would only increase the working population, and the availability of more workers would in turn cause wages to fall which created a cycle of misery and starvation

Jeremy Bentham

founded utilitarianism; advocated "the greatest happiness of the greatest number"

John Stuart Mill

English philosopher; wrote On Liberty (1859) which is an essay that talked about problem of how to protect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral participation; advocated right of workers to organize, equality of women, and universal suffrage

Johann Gottfried Herder

(1744-1803); regarded as the father of modern nationalism; advocated intuition over reason


Term originally used by Johan Gottfried von Herder in 1784 which says that each country needs its own unique national character

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

(1762-1814); German philosopher, "father" of German nationalism; spoke of a German superiority over the other peoples and criticized the Jews


secret liberal-national organizations who are protesting the absolute rule of Ferdinand I of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies

Greek Revolution

(1821-1829); Rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan Empire.

"Eastern Question"

Which European countries would fill the void in the Balkans resulting from the decline of the Ottoman Empire?

Treaty of Adrianople

(1829); recognized Greek autonomy after Russia had defeated the Turks in a war

Revolutions of 1830


July Revolution

(1830); liberals and nationalists throughout Europe revolted against conservative governments

Louis Philippe, "Bourgeoisie King"

(r.1830-1848); of Orleans family and became the new king under a constitutional monarchy

Guiseppe Mazzani

(1805-1872); the leader of the Italian nationalists called for unification

Young Italy

(1830); a secret society and its goal was free and united Italy which was founded by Mazzini


the Italian movement and its goal of liberation and unification


Prussia established it in 1834; established an economic union of 17 German states which eliminated internal tariffs and set the tone for greater union; free-trade idea was quite liberal; Austria excluded; the issue became a major point of contention between Prussia and Austria


a member(s) of the political party that urged social reform in 18th and 19th century England; was the opposition party to the Tories

Earl Grey

Whigs leader; was asked by the new king George IV to form a new government (1830) and was supported by the middle class

Reform Bill of 1832

considered a milestone in British history; sought to increase number of voter from 6% of population to 12% and to eliminate underpopulated rural electoral districts

Factory Act of 1831

no child labor under age of 9

William Wilberforce

British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807

Mines Act, 1842

prohibited employment underground of wmen, girls and boys under 10


reformers who sought universal suffrade

Anti-Corn Law League

(1838); led by Richard Cobden and John Bright who formed to help workers by lowering bread prices

Revolution of 1848

considered the watershed political event of the 19th century; 1848 revolutions influenced by nationalism, liberalism, and romanticism as well as economic dislocation and instability; only Britain and Russia avoided significant upheaval; neither liberals nor conservatives could gain a permanent upper hand; resulted in end of serfdom in Austria and Germany universal male suffrage in France, parliaments established in German state

February Revolution

the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917

Second French Republic

led by liberal Alphonse Lamartine who was allied with bourgeoisie; after the 1848 revolution in France, which caused Louis-Philippe to flee, this government system was put in place by revolutionists and guaranteed universal male suffrage. Louis-Napoleon (later known as Napoleon III), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was overwhelmingly elected president, and France enjoyed a period of stability and prosperity. This government was later overthrown in yet another coup d'etat.

"June Days" Revolution

(1848); cause: the government closed national workshops; marked the beginning of class warfare in France between the bourgeoisie and the working class; workers sought war against poverty and redistribution of income

Giuseppe Garibaldi

(1807-1882); , Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state; protected Giuseppe Mazzini


One of the barbarian group known as Hungarian nomads.

Louis Kossuth

Hungarian leader and demanded independence


Czech (Bohemian) nobility was wiped out during the Bohemian phase of 30 Year's War, Ferdinand II redistributed Czech lands to aristocratic soldiers form all over Europe, serf conditions declined

Prague Conference, Austroslavism

(1848); called by the Czechs in response to the all-german frankfurt conference, developed the nation of Austroslavism, This movement increasingly evident after 1848. Slavs in Austrian Empire wanting to maintain framework of empire in which there would be increasing local self-government for nationalities to grow in.

Frankfurt Parliament

(May, 1848); Unsuccessful attempt to unify Germany in 1848. It intended to write a moderately liberal constitution for a unified Germany, but alienated conservatives, workers and liberals.

Frederick William IV

(1795-1865); Prussian king who was unable to unify Germany and gave into Prussia's constitution

"Humiliation of Olmutz"

Prussia dropped the plan to unify Germany, leaving Austria as the dominant German state in the Bund; Prussia would seek revenge in 1866 (Austro-Prussian War)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

(1712-1778); French philosopher who believe that human beings are naturally good and free and can rely on their instincts and government should exist to protect common good and be a democracy; wrote the Social Contract (1762): believed society and materialism corrupted human nature

Immanuel Kant

(1724-1804); influential German idealist philosopher; accepted rationalism of the Enlightenment while preserving belief in human freedom, immortality and the existence of God; helped establish philosophy as a separate branch from religion

sturm and drang

"storm and stress": used by German romantics in 1770s and 80s conveying emotional intensity

George William Friedrich Hegel

(1770-1831); leading figure of German liberalism


initial idea (thesis) is challenged by an opposing view (anti-thesis) and results in a hybrid of the two ideas (synthesis)

William Wordsworth

(1771-1855); a romantic English poet whose work was inspired by philosophy of Rousseau and the spirit of the early French Revolution; and published Lyrical Ballads which was one of the most influential literary works in the history of the English languagedefied classical rules and abandoned flowery poetic conventions for ordinary language

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

(1772-1834); look at William Wordsworth^^

Lord Byron

(1788-1824); British Romantic poet; his works included "She Walks in Beauty" and "Don Juan" unfinished; embodied the melancholic Romantic figure and died fighting fro Greek independence against the Turks in 1824

Percy Bysshe Shelley

(1792-1822); Englishman and Romantic poet; wrote Promethus Unbound (1820): detailed the revolt of humans against society that oppresses them

Grimm's Fairytales

collection of German folk stories; the Grimm Brothers, Jakob and Wilhelm, were influenced by Herder's views about preserving songs and saying of German culture; provided a strong example of how German nationalism and romanticism were tied together

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

(1749-1832); German poet and novelist and dramatist; wrote "Faust" (1832): Geothe seems to criticize the excesses of Romanticism by Faust's selling his soul to the devil in return for experiencing all human experience; wrote Sorrows of the Young Werther: the novel told of a sensitive young man whose hopeless love of a virtuous married woman drives him to suicide

Victor Hugo

(1802-1885); French poet and novelist and dramatist; leader of the romantic movement in France

Caspar David Friedrich

(1774-1840); German Romantic painter; painted Wanderers Above the Mist (1818); mystical view of the sublime power of nature was conveyed in many of his paintings

Eugene Delacroix

(1796-1824); most famous French romantic painter; interested in the exotic and dramatic use of color; painted Liberty Leading the People (1830): his most famous work for his portrayal of the 1830 revolution in France

Theodore Gericault

(1791-1824); important French painter and lithographer; known for the Raft of the Medusa (1818-1819): based on a shipwreck of the west coast of Africa; themes of power of nature and man's attempt to survive its force

J.W.M Turner

(1775-1851); English romantic painter; depicted nature's power and terror; wild storms and sinking ships were favorite subjects; many paintings of landscapes, seascapes, sunrises, and sunsets

John Constable

(1776-1837); English landscape painter; rural English landscapes in which human beings were at one with their environment

British Houses of Parliament

(1836-1837); The most famous public buildings in Gothic style

Ludwig van Beethoven

(1770-1826); German composer of instrumentals and transitional figure between the Classical and Romantic eras; one of the first composer to convey inner human emotion through music;

Frederic Chopin

(1811-1849);Polish romantic composer; wrote numerous piano works that highlighted Polish folk songs and dances

Franz Liszt

(1811-1886); Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso; many of his works reflected his native Hungarian music (ex Hungarian Rhapsody); greatest piano virtuoso of the mid-late 19th century; developed the symphonic poem, a single movement symphonic work that was based on a literary or pictorial idea

Anton Dvorak

(1841-1904); Czech composer; works utilized folk music of his native Bohemia

Giuseppi Verdi

(1813-1901); greatest Italian opera composer and wrote twenty-three operas

Richard Wagner

(1813-1883); German opera; along with Verdi he is considered the greatest opera composer of the 19th century; his development of the "music-drama" is often considered the culmination of the Romantic era; German nationalist composer who strongly emphasized Germanic myths and legends

Peter Tchaikovsky

(1840-1893); most well known of the Russian romantic composers; often used Russian folk songs in his symphonies ballets (ex The Nutcracker and Swan Lake); 1812 Overture (1882) and March Slav (1876) are two example of his use of folk songs and the creation of memorable melodies

Henry de Saint-Simon

(1760-1825); father of socialism; industrialization; proper social organizations would require the "parasites" (the court, aristocracy, lawyers, churchmen) to gave way to "doers" (leading scientists, engineers, industrialists); sought public projects and establishing investment banks

Louis Blanc

(1811-1882); more practical approach than other early French socialist; urged worker to fight for universal suffrage and to take control of the state peacefully; government should set up workshops and factories to guarantee full employment; played a role in the "June Days" Revolution in Paris in 1848

Pierre Joseph Proudhon

(1809-1865); French socialist; wrote What is Property? (1840); believed property was profit stolen from the worker, who was the source of all wealth; often considered an anarchist as he greatly feared the power of the state

Charles Fourier

(1772-1837); French sociologist and reformer; sought planned economy and socialist communities; described socialist utopia in mathematical detail; seven utopian communities founded along his ideas; most in the U.S.; early proponent of total emancipation of women

Karl Marx

developed the Scientific Socialism or Marxism; wrote the Communist Manifesto with Friederich Engels (1848)

Friedrich Engels

developed the Scientific Socialism or Marxism; wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx (1848): considered the "bible" of communism and intended to replace utopian hopes and dreams with a brutal, militant blueprint for socialist working class success

The Communist Manifesto, 1848

written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; considered the "bible" of communism and intended to replace utopian hopes and dreams with a brutal, militant blueprint for socialist working class success

dialectical materialism

the economic interpretation of history: all human history determined by economic factors; the class struggle: since the beginning of time there has been a class struggle between the rich and the poor, or the exploiters and the the exploited; Theory of Surplus Value: true value of a product is labor and since workers receives a small portion of his just labor price, the difference is surplus value; socialism was inevitable: capitalism contains the seeds of its own destruction; violent revolution: the increasing gap between proletariat and bourgeoisie will be so great that the working classes will rise up in revolution and overthrow the elite bourgeoisie

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