48 terms

Chapter 19 Beginning of the Cold War

From Social Studies Division Lesson Plans for SS.912.A.6.10: Examine causes, course, and consequences of the early years of the Cold War
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Terms in this set (...)

Containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Cold War
(1945-1991) The period after the Second World War marked by rivalry and tension between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union. The Cold War ended when the Soviet government collapsed in 1991.
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Truman Doctrine
(HT) , 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan
..., A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe. (In hopes that said countries would resist communism)
United Nations (UN)
An international governmental organization created shortly before the end of World War II to guarantee the security of nations and to promote global economic, physical, and social well-being
satellite nations
Eastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
38th Parallel
A line that crosses Korea at 38 degrees north latitude, North being communist (N Korea, S Korea), South Korea being capitalist. Japanese troops surrendered to the Soviets. South of this line, Japanese surrendered to the Americans.
HUAC
House Un-American Activities Committee-A Congressional Committee that investigated Commmunist influence in the USA after WW2.
Hollywood Ten
A group of writers and directors dubbed this nickname went to jail for contempt of Congress for refusing to testify about their past associations. Hundreds of other actors, directors, and writers whose names had been mentioned in the HUAC investigation were unable to get work, victims o an unacknowledged but very real blacklist honored by industry executives.
blacklist
a list of 500 actors, writers; producers; and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood flims b/c of the alleged Communist connections
Dixiecrats
Conservative southern Democrats who objected to President Truman's strong push for civil-rights legislation. Southern Democrats who broke from the party in 1948 over the issue of civil rights and ran a presidential ticket as the States' Rights Democrats with J. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina as a canidate.
NSC-68
1950; National Security Council Memorandum 68 recommended that the US quadruple defense spending to meet the challenges of the Cold War. Initially this recommendation was ignored, but the Korean War cleared the way for its implementation. By 1953 defense spending took up two-thirds of the federal budget.
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Taiwan
Island off Chinese mainland; became refuge for Nationalist Chinese regime under Chiang Kai-shek as Republic of China in 1948; successfully retained independence with aid of United States; rapidly industrialized after 1950s.
Korean War
1950-1953 Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
American Communists who were accused of conspiracy to commit espionage against the United States. They were charged with sharing Atomic secrets with the Soviet Union. They were executed in 1953; the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history.
Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
McCarthyism
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
H-Bomb
Hydrogen bomb. This bomb is 67 times more powerful than the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima. The U.S. developed it first, closely followed by the Soviet Union.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(25.2) 1890-1969, American General during WWII. He began by leading the Allied troops in Operation Torch, an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa, in which he succeeded. He then became the commander of the Allied forces in Europe. He became president in 1953.
John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
brinksmanship
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The chief government intelligence-gathering agency, which has two primary functions; espionage & convert action.
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Eisenhower Doctrine
- US would interne in Middle East if any government threatened by a communist takeover asked for help
Nikita Krushchev
Leader of the Soviet union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis. He and President Kennedy signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, temporarily easing Cold War tensions.
Francis Gary Powers
(26.4) The pilot of the final U-2 flight, which took place on May 1, 1960. Four hours after he entered Soviet airspace, a Soviet pilot shot down his plane, and he was forced to parachute into Soviet-controlled territory. The Soviets sentenced him to ten years in prison. After 18 months, he was released in exchange for Soviet agent Rudolf Abel, who had been convicted of spying in the U.S/Bridge of Spies Movie
proletariat
A term in Marxist theory for the class of free wage laborers who own no capital and must sell their labor to survive; communist parties claim to work on the proletariat's behalf
totalitarian
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
George C. Marshall
Army general during World War II who orchestrated the Allied victories over Germany and Japan, and later Secretary of State who developed the Marshall Plan in 1947, a program of massive aid for the reconstruction of Europe.
U-2 Incident
..., The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
domino theory
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Sergei Korolev
the leading Soviet rocket scientist; known as the father of the soviet space program
Wernher von Braun
A former member of the Nazi party, von Braun would later be regarded as the preeminent rocket engineer of the 20th century in his role with the United States civilian space agency NASA.
Chiang Kai-shek/Jian Jieshi
Chinese military and political leader. Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Kuomintang in 1923; headed the Chinese government from 1928-1948; fought against the Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders. After 1949 he headed the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan.
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Israel
Independent Jewish nation founded in 1948 in Palestine. It became a US ally and ignited resentment among the predominately Muslim Middle East.
Iran
During the Eisenhower administration, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) helped overthrow the government/Helped the Shah gain power
Suez Canal Crisis
Military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel in 1956 after Egypt seized the Suez Canal from British administration.
Guatemala
1954 the CIA helped to overthrow the govt on the grounds that their leaders were sympathetic to the USSR
ICBM
Intercontinental ballistic missiles first launched by the USSR in 1957, which threatened the USA
Helmut Grottrup
German engineer and rocket scientist that was forcibly brought to Russia to work with Korolev in 1945-46
Valentin Glushko
Russian that denounced Korolev and sent him to the Gulag during Stalin's Great Purge
V-2
world's first long-range guided ballistic missile. Would be used as vengeance weapon by the Nazi's and both USSR and US want the technology