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tissue: cells are avascular (closely packed together, little or no intercellular material between adjacent cells); major roles include secretion, absorption, protection, and synthesizing hormones; covers external body surfaces and lines inner walls of cavities and organs; has basement membrane (attachment) and free surface (exposed side); classified by shape and layer
epithelium: singer layer of flat cells; lines inside wall of blood vessels, forms walls of capillaries and lung air sacs - absorption by diffusion, filtration, osmosis; secretion
epithelium: single layer of cube-shaped cells; forms walls of ducts in skin glands and kidney tubules - secretion, absorption
epithelium: single layer of column-shaped cells; lines inside walls of stomach and intestines - protection, secretion, absorption, moving of mucus w/ cilia
epithelium: multiple layers of cells, with cells along free edge flattened in shape; superficial layer of the skin, mouth, and throat (friction) - protection
epithelium: single layer of irregularly shaped cells that appear multi-layered, often with cilia; lines inside walls of larynx, trachea, and bronchi - protection
epithelium: multiple layers of spherical or irregularly shaped cells; lines inside walls of urinary bladder and ureter - permits stretching
glands that empty products into ducts. the ducts transport products to the body surface or into a cavity. (salivary glands, oil glands in skin, sweat glands)
glands that secrete products into the extracellular space, where the products diffuse into the bloodstream. (pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands)
tissue: cells are vascular (widely scattered with large amounts of nonliving intercellular material); contains ground substance (protein-sugar molecules and protein fibers); functions include supporting body structures and gluing tissues and organs in place; contains two types of cells: one maintains intercellular material and one protects tissue from infections; has great capacity for growth and repair
type of protein fiber in connective tissue; thick, wavelike strands; resists stretching; has great tensile strength; composed of most abundant protein in the body (found in tendons, scar tissue)
type of protein fiber in connective tissue; elasticity (ability to stretch) and extensibility (ability to return to original shape); found in skin
type of protein fiber in connective tissue; resists physical stress; least abundant of all the fibers
loose connective tissue; most common connective tissue; all 3 protein fibers present in a fluid ground substance; has fibroblasts (cells that produce fibers and ground substance) and macrophages (white blood cells); functions include being a structural anchor to body parts; found between skin and muscles, surface of organs, filling spaces between organs
loose connective tissue; has adipocytes (specialized fibroblasts that contain large deposits of fat); has minimal intercellular material; functions include storing energy as fat, being an insulating pad between organs, being a shock absorber
loose connective tissue; contains reticular fibers; makes a 3D network for support in the liver and spleen
dense connective tissue
connective tissue: protein fibers are packed closely together with little ground substance
dense irregular connective tissue
connective tissue: fibers extend in various directions; found in skin and round bone and cartilage
dense regular connective tissue
connective tissue: fibers extend parallel to each other; found in tendons and ligaments
connective tissue: more solid than connective tissue proper; has a matrix of protein fibers and thickened ground substance; has chondrocytes (cartilage cells that maintain the matrix, embedded in small chambers called lacunae); has perichondium (dense connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage and is vascular; materials diffuse from perichondrium to chondrocytes); 3 types
connective tissue: most abundant type of cartilage; matrix is dominated by chondroitin sulfate and collagen; sparsely distributed chondrocytes in matrix; found in the upper portion of the respiratory tract (trachea and bronci), ends of bones and ribs, skeleton of a fetus
connective tissue: elastic fibers dominate the matrix and weave through the chondrocytes; found in ears, end of nose, epiglottis
connective tissue: solid, flexible matrix containing primarily collagen fibers; collagen fibers are dark, wavy lines that weave around the chondrocytes; found in joints and intervertebral discs
connective tissue: matrix (intercellular material) is filled with mineral salts and collagen fibers; durable and hard; has osteocytes (secrete bone matrix, embedded in chambers called lacunae); 2 types
connective tissue: composed of osteons or haversian systems; osteons form concentric circles throughout it; has osteonic canal or haversian canal (extends through middle of osteon, contains blood vessels)
connective tissue: has living cells; plasma is the fluid matrix that contains fibers that come into action during clotting; transports gases, nutrients, wastes, etc.
tissue: highly specialized to contract in order to produce movement of some body parts
muscle tissue: long, threadlike, alternating light/dark cross markings called striations, many nuclei, can stimulate a muscle cell to contract, found in muscles that attach to bones, controls voluntary movements
muscle tissue: alternating light/dark cross markings called striations, branched, joined end to end, intricate networks, single nucleus, intercalated disc where cells touch, cannot stimulate a muscle cell to contract, found in heart, controls involuntary movements
muscle tissue: no striations, short, spindle-shaped cells, single/central nucleus, cannot stimulate a muscle cell to contract, found in walls of hollow internal organs, controls involuntary movements
nerve tissue: special supporting cells that protect, support, and insulate the neurons
nerve tissue: branching cells that have cell processes (axons and dendrites) that may be quite long and extend from the nucleus-containing body
body membrane: skin; superficial epidermis is composed of a stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium while underlying dermis is dense, fibrous connective tissue; exposed to air and is a dry membrane
body membrane: lines all body cavities that open to the exterior; composed of various epithelial tissue (mostly stratified squamous or simple columnar) resting on loose connective tissue; wet or moist membrane continuously bathed in secretions
body membrane: lines body cavities that are closed to the exterior; composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue; membranes work in pairs parietal and visceral (next to the organ) and secrete serous fluid in between the two layers; organs can slide easily across the cavity walls and each other with a minimum of friction
body membrane: lines joints and small sacs of connective tissue called bursea and tendon sheaths in order to cushion and lubricate during activity; composed of connective tissue only
characteristics of cancer
1 hyperplasia- uncontrolled cell division (cells activate telomerase - continually rebuilds chromosomes so that cells are not signaled to stop dividing)
2 dedifferentiation- cells lose many of the specialized structures/functions
3 invasiveness- cells break through boundaries (basement membranes) that separate cell layers within some organs
4 angiogenesis- cells induce extension of blood vessels (nourish cells and remove wastes
5 metastasis- cells spread (metastasize) to other tissues; cand etach from their original mass and move from their place of origin, into bloodstream or lymphatic system
epithelium: thick sheet of dead cells with no visible nuclei along free surface of tissue
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