sweet: glycogen- a complex carbohydrate composed of glucose molecules bonded in a particular way
equal: isotope- atom that has the same atomic number as another atom but a different atomic weight.
extremely small particle with almost no weight; carries a negative electrical charge and is in constant motion around an atomic nucleus
relatively large particle; carries a positive electrical charge and is found within a nucleus of an atom
Neutron, (n*) zero power
particle. about the same weight as a proton. uncharged. electrically neutral. found within an atomic nucleus.
Why is a knowledge of chemistry essential to understanding Physiology? (2.1)
Chemistry deals with the composition of substances and changes in their composition. The human body is composed of chemicals.
What is the relationship between matter and elements?
matter is anything that has weight and takes up space. Naturally occurring matter on earth is composed of 92 elements.
Elements usually occur in combinations called compounds.
Elements are composed of Atoms.
Atoms of different elements vary in size, weight, and ways of interacting.
What elements are most common in the human body?
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus are termed bulk elements. These elements make up more than 95% (by weight) of the human body.
Atomic radiation, what are the 3 forms they emit?
The energy or atomic fragments released by elements that have unstable nuclei that decompose, releasing pieces of themselves until they reach a stable form. the energy or atomic fragments that radioactive isotopes emit; comes in three forms: alpha(α), beta(β), and gamma(γ
Atomic structure: an atom consist of?
electrons surrounding a nucleus, which has protons and neutrons. The exception is hydrogen which only has a proton in its nucleus.
atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic weight; due to differing numbers of neutrons
Atoms with with incompletely filled outer shells gains, lose, or share electrons, or all of the above? and thus become stable.
all of the above. They gain, share or lose electrons and thus become stable
The direction of a reaction depends upon?
The direction of a reaction depends upon the proportion of reactants of products, the energy available , and the presence or absence of catalyst * enzymes
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions are acids and those that release hydroxide or other ions that react with hydrogen are ions are what?
a _____(double, triple, or tenfold) difference in hydrogen ion concentration separates each whole number in the pH scale.
What are some of the many chemical reactions that take place in water?
Water transports chemicals and heat and helps release excess body heat.
Lipids such as ____ ; ____; and _____ supply energy and are used to build cell parts. Their building blocks are molecules of ___ and ____
fats; phospholipids; and steroids.
glycerol and fatty acids
Proteins serve as ____ ( name 7) that initiate or speed chemical reactions without being consumed
structural materials, energy sources, hormones, cell surface receptors, antibodies, and enzymes
Proteins vary in numbers and types of their __
constituent amino acids; and their three dimensional structures, or conformations
Exposure to excessive heat, radiation, electricity, or certain chemicals can do what to proteins?
Nucleic acids constitutes genes, the instructions that control cell activities, and direct protein synthesis.
1. the 2 types are RNA and DNA
2. Nucleic acid building blocks are Nucleotides
3. DNA molecules store information that cell parts used to construct specific proteins
4. RNA molecules help synthesize proteins
5. RNA molecules are replicated, and an exact copy of the original cell's DNA is passed to each of the newly formed cells resulting from cell division
Explain the difference between chemistry and biochemistry
Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and how they change. Biochemistry is the chemistry of living organisms.
anything that has weight and takes up space. this includes all solids, liquids, and gases, in our surroundings as well as in our bodies.
List 4 of the most abundant elements in the human body
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen; sulfur, phosphorus, these elements make up more than 95% of the body by weight.
explain the relationship between elements and atoms.
Elements are composed of particles called atoms, the smallest complete units of the elements
Identify the major parts of an atom and indicate where they are found within an atom.
An atom consist of a central portion called the nucleus, and one or more electrons. that constantly move around the nucleus. The nucleus contains one or more relatively large particles, protons and usually neutrons. Protons and neutrons are about equal in weight, but they are otherwise different. Electrons are so small they at they have almost no weight, carry a single negative electrical charge e- each proton carries a single, positive electrical charge p+ Neutrons are uncharged and thus are electrically neutral. the neucleus contains protons, so this part of an atom is always positively charged. However the number of electrons outside the nucleus equals the number of protons , so a complete atom is said to have no net charge and is thus electrically neutral.
distinguish between protons and neutrons.
Protons and neutrons are about equal in weight, but they are otherwise different. protons carry a single, positive electrical charge p+ Neutrons are uncharged and thus are electrically neutral.
Explain why a complete atom is electrically neutral
The nucleus has a certain number of protons (p+) which is surrounded by the same number of electrons (e-) which cancel each other
Distinguish between atomic number and atomic weight
Atomic number refers to the number of protons in the atom. Atomic weight is calculated by the number of protons plus neutrons
an atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons...according to book...Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic weight
The energy or atomic fragments released by elements that have unstable nuclei that decompose, releasing pieces of themselves until they reach a stable form
explain the relationship between molecules and compounds
When 2 or more atoms bond, they create molecules. When two or more molecules bond, they form compounds.
explain how electrons are distributed within the electron shells of atoms.
the electrons of an atom occupy one or more regions of space called electron shells that encircle the nucleus. Because electrons have a level of energy characteristic of the particular shell they are in, the shells are sometimes called energy shells. Each electron shell can hold a limited number of electrons. the maximum number of electrons that each of the first three shells can hold for elements of atomic number 18 and under is: FIRST SHELL closest to the nucleus is 2 electrons , SECOND SHELL 8 electrons, THIRD SHELL is 8 electrons. More complex atoms may have as many as 18 electrons in the third shell.
explain why some atoms are chemically inert
outermost electron shells are filled. These atoms cannot form chemical bonds. Such atoms as helium, whose outermost electron shells are filled, already have stable structures and are chemically inactive or inert meaning they can not form chemical bonds.
An ionic bond forms when_____?
a. atoms share electrons
b. positively charge and negatively charged pats of covalent molecules attract
c. ions with opposite electrical charges attract
d. two atoms exchange protons
e. an element has 2 isotopes
c. ions with opposite electrical charges attract