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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Cellular Injury Induced by Ischemia - Reversible
  2. Hypertrophy
  3. Cellular Accumulations - Protein
  4. Coagulative Necrosis
  5. Hydropic Degeneration (any type of hypoxia)
  1. a
    1) obstruction or cessation of blood flow; 2) Ischemia, 3a) decrease mitochondrial oxygenation, 4a) severe vaculization of mitochondria (end); 4b) decrease ATP; 5a) decrease Na+ pump, 6) increase intracellular Na, xcellular K,intracellular Ca, 7) increase H2O, 8) increase acute cellular swelling, 5b) 5+6+7 is dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, 6) detatchment of ribosomes, 7) decrease protein synthesis, 8) lipid deposition, 5b) increase glycolysis, 6) decrease glycogen, 7) increase lactate, 8) decrease pH, 9a) nuclear chromatin clumping, 9b) increase swelling of lysosomes
  2. b mutations in protien can slow protein folding so cell is filled with unfolded proteins, which might not be in the proper format to be used; also, metabolites (used to digest some proteins) are released from lysosomes can damage cellular organells and excessive amounts of protien in cytoplsm push against cellular organells, disrupting organelle function and intracellular communication; accumulates primarily in epithelial cells of renal confoluted tubule and antibody-forming plamsam cells (B-lymphocytes)
  3. c an increase in the size of cells and consequently in size of affected organ; heart and kidneys are very prone; associated with increased accumulation of protein in the cellular components (PM, ER, mitochondrea) and NOT with an increase in cellular fluid; can be physiologic or pathologic; is REVERSIBLE
  4. d
    very common w/any hypoxia, even as momentary as leg falling asleep; can be reversed; 1) injury, 2) ATP production decreases, 3) sodium and water move into cell, Potassium moves out of cell, 4) Osmotic pressure increases 5) more water moves into cell, 6) cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum distend, rupture, and form vacuoles, 7) extensive vacuolation, 8) hydropic degeneration
  5. e
    occurs in KIDNEYS, HEART, and ADRENAL GLANDS commonly results from hypoxia caused by severe ischemia or hypoxia caused by chemical injury; Coagulation is cause by PROTEIN DENATURATION, which causes the protein albumin to change from gelatinous, transparent state to a firm, opaque state; bonds in protein break and they unfold

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. lack of sufficient oxygen; the single most common cause of cellular injury; can result from reduced amount of oxygen in air, loss of hemoglobin or decreased efficacy of hemoglobin, decreased production of RBCs, diseases of repiratory or cardovascular systems, and poisoning of the oxidative enzymes w/in cell; can induce inflammation and inflamed lesions can become hypoxic; most common form is ischemia (reduced blood supply)
  2. cellular swelling, most common degenerative change, is caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; usually occurs in spleen, liver, CNS; cisternae of ER become distended, rupture, and then unite to form large vacuoles that isolate water from cytoplasm (called vacuolation); results in oncosis (hydropic degeneration)
  3. ATP deletion, Reactive Oxygen Species, Ca++ entry, Mitochondrial damage, Membrane damage, Protein misfolding/DNA damage - Table 3-2
  4. abnormal intercellular accumulation of carbohydrates and lipids; priamarily found in spleen, liver, and CNS; can cause "fatty liver": as lipids fill cells, vacuolation pushes the nucleus and other organelles aside; liver's outward appearance is yellow and greasy; Alcohol abuse most common cause
  5. usually result of COAGULATIVE necrosis; SKIN becomes very dry and shrinks resulting in wrinkles, and its color changes to dark brown or black;

5 True/False questions

  1. Drowningan alteration of oxygen delivery to tissues resulting from inhalation of fluid, usually water; major mechanism of injury is hypoxemia (low blood O2 levels); can have dry-lung drowning that causes laryngospasms instead of actual water

          

  2. Gas Gangreneusually result of COAGULATIVE necrosis; SKIN becomes very dry and shrinks resulting in wrinkles, and its color changes to dark brown or black;

          

  3. Gangrenous Necrosis
    occurs in LUNGS; usually results from TB PULMONARY INFECTION, especially by Myobacterium tuberculosis; Combination of COAGULATIVE AND LIQUEFACTIVE necroses; The dead cells disintegrate, bt debris is not completely digested by hydrolases; Tissues resemble clumped cheese in that they are soft and granular; A granulomatous inflammatory wall encloses areas of caseous necrosis; Tb starts to kill lung tissue (liquefactive) and macrophages come in and stop it and coagulate the tissue - why you see tubricles in lungs

          

  4. Asphyxial Injuriescuased by failure of cells to receive or use oxygen; deprivation of oxygen may be partial (hypoxia) or total (anoxia); grouped into 4 gneral categories; suffication, strangulation, chemical, and drowning

          

  5. Ischemiareduced blood supply; often caused by gradual narrowing of arteries (artiosclerosis) and complete blockage by blood clots (thrombosis); progressive hypoxia caused by gradual arterial obstruction is better tlerated than acute anoxia (total lack of oxygen)