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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Dry Gangrene
  2. Cellular Adaptations
  3. Cellular Injury Induced by Ischemia - Reversible
  4. Coagulative Necrosis
  5. Atrophy
  1. a
    1) obstruction or cessation of blood flow; 2) Ischemia, 3a) decrease mitochondrial oxygenation, 4a) severe vaculization of mitochondria (end); 4b) decrease ATP; 5a) decrease Na+ pump, 6) increase intracellular Na, xcellular K,intracellular Ca, 7) increase H2O, 8) increase acute cellular swelling, 5b) 5+6+7 is dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, 6) detatchment of ribosomes, 7) decrease protein synthesis, 8) lipid deposition, 5b) increase glycolysis, 6) decrease glycogen, 7) increase lactate, 8) decrease pH, 9a) nuclear chromatin clumping, 9b) increase swelling of lysosomes
  2. b
    a reversible, structural, or functional response both to normal or physiologic conditions and to adverse or pathologic conditions; Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Dysplasia, Metaplasia
  3. c
    a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; if atrophy happens in sufficient number of an organ's cells, the entire organ shrinks; can be physiological like thymus, pathological (disease process), or disuse; is REVERSIBLE
  4. d
    occurs in KIDNEYS, HEART, and ADRENAL GLANDS commonly results from hypoxia caused by severe ischemia or hypoxia caused by chemical injury; Coagulation is cause by PROTEIN DENATURATION, which causes the protein albumin to change from gelatinous, transparent state to a firm, opaque state; bonds in protein break and they unfold
  5. e usually result of COAGULATIVE necrosis; SKIN becomes very dry and shrinks resulting in wrinkles, and its color changes to dark brown or black;

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. the sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion, knon as autodigestion (autolysis); Damage to the plasma membrane and cell structures; 6 Major Types of Necrosis are Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive Necrosis, Caseous Necrosis, Fat Necrosis and Gangrenous Necrosis
  2. (infiltration); intracellular accoumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances and the resultant metabolic disturbances; results not only from sublethal, sustained injury by cells but also result from normal (but inefficient) cell function; Normal cellular substances ( excess water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) or abnormal substance (endogenous - product of abnormalmetabolism or synthesis, exogenous - infectious agents or minerals)
  3. an increase in the size of cells and consequently in size of affected organ; heart and kidneys are very prone; associated with increased accumulation of protein in the cellular components (PM, ER, mitochondrea) and NOT with an increase in cellular fluid; can be physiologic or pathologic; is REVERSIBLE
  4. caused by compression and closure of blood vessels and air passages resulting from external pressure on neck; causes cerbral hypoxia or anoxia secondary to alteration or cessation of blood flow to and from brain; hanging (inverted V on neck), ligature (horizontal mark on neck), manual strangulation (hands on neck)
  5. cuased by failure of cells to receive or use oxygen; deprivation of oxygen may be partial (hypoxia) or total (anoxia); grouped into 4 gneral categories; suffication, strangulation, chemical, and drowning

5 True/False questions

  1. Cellular Accumulations - Proteinmutations in protien can slow protein folding so cell is filled with unfolded proteins, which might not be in the proper format to be used; also, metabolites (used to digest some proteins) are released from lysosomes can damage cellular organells and excessive amounts of protien in cytoplsm push against cellular organells, disrupting organelle function and intracellular communication; accumulates primarily in epithelial cells of renal confoluted tubule and antibody-forming plamsam cells (B-lymphocytes)


  2. Suffocationoxygen failing to reach the blood, can result from lack of O2 in environment (entrapment in enclosed space or filling enviro w/suffocating gas), or blockage of external airways (compression of chest, choking)


  3. Cellular Injury
    most diseases begin with cell injury; occurs if the cell is unable to maintain homeostatis in face o finjurious stimulie; may be reverisble or irreversible (die)


  4. Chemical Asphyxiantseither prevent the delivery of oxygen to the tissues or block its utilization; doesn't allow hemaglobin to attach to oxygen or doesn't allow O2 to pass alveoli; Carbon Monoxide is the most common; Cyanide acts as an asphyxiant by combining w/ferric iron atom in cytochrome oxidase, blocking the intracellular use of oxygen, has same cherry fred appearance as a carbon monoxide intoxication; Hydrogen Sulfide (sewer gas) that may have brown-tinged blood in addition to nonspecific signs of asphyxiation


  5. Apoptosis"dropping off" is an important distinct type of cell death taht differs from necrosis in several ways; is an active process of cellular self-destruction called programmed cell death and is implicated in both normal and pathologic tissue changes; Cells need to die; otherwise, endless proliferation would lead to gigantic bodies; occurs in 1) severe cell injury, 2) accumulation of misfoled proteins, 3) infections, 4) obstruction in tissue ducts; When cell injury exceeds repair mechanisms, the cell triggers apoptosis