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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Cellular Injury
  2. Fat Necrosis
  3. Necrosis
  4. Gas Gangrene
  5. Cellular Accumulations - Water
  1. a
    is cellular dissolution caused by power enzymes, called LIPASES, that occur in BREAST, PANCREAS, and, other ABDOMINAL ORGANS; Lipases break down triglycerides, releaseing free fatty acids that then combine with calcium, magnesium and sodium ions, creating SOAPS (saponification); Necrotic tissue appears opaque and chalk-white.
  2. b cellular swelling, most common degenerative change, is caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; usually occurs in spleen, liver, CNS; cisternae of ER become distended, rupture, and then unite to form large vacuoles that isolate water from cytoplasm (called vacuolation); results in oncosis (hydropic degeneration)
  3. c
    most diseases begin with cell injury; occurs if the cell is unable to maintain homeostatis in face o finjurious stimulie; may be reverisble or irreversible (die)
  4. d the sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion, knon as autodigestion (autolysis); Damage to the plasma membrane and cell structures; 6 Major Types of Necrosis are Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive Necrosis, Caseous Necrosis, Fat Necrosis and Gangrenous Necrosis
  5. e refers to a special type of gangrene cause by INFECTION of injured tissue by one of many species of Clostridium; these anaerobic bacteria produce HYDROLYTIC ENYMES and TOXINS that detroy connective tissue and cellular membranes and cause bubbles of gas to from in muscle cells; this can be fatal if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBCs, dstorying thier O2 carrying capasity; Death is caused by shock.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. seen in genetic disorders called 'glycogen storage disease' and in disorders of glucose and glycogen metabolism; results in excessive vacuolation of cytoplasm (like water); most common cuase is diabetes mellitus; when not storing glucose or glycogen correctly, breakdown in energy of cell

  2. reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another, sometimes less differentiated, cell type; develops from a reprogramming of stem cells that exist on most epithelia or of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells present in connective tissue; Normal process (such as uterus); uniform to each other and relatively organized; is REVERSIBLE

  3. membrane damage, 2a) loss of phospholipids, alterations of cytoskeleton, activtation of inflammation (complement, cytokines, and leukocytes), increase free radicals, lipid breakdown; 3a) release of enzymes (CPK, LDH) (end), 3b) increase CA influx; 2b) increase swelling of lysosomes, 3) increased release of lysosomal enzymes (hydrolases), 4) cellular digestion (autodigestion)
  4. caused by compression and closure of blood vessels and air passages resulting from external pressure on neck; causes cerbral hypoxia or anoxia secondary to alteration or cessation of blood flow to and from brain; hanging (inverted V on neck), ligature (horizontal mark on neck), manual strangulation (hands on neck)

5 True/False questions

  1. Dysplasia
    abnormal changes in the size, shape and organization of mature cells; no considered true adaptive process but is related to hyperplaia and is often called atypical hyperplasia; often encountered in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract; can, but not always, turn to cancer; often reversible


  2. Cellular Adaptations(infiltration); intracellular accoumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances and the resultant metabolic disturbances; results not only from sublethal, sustained injury by cells but also result from normal (but inefficient) cell function; Normal cellular substances ( excess water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) or abnormal substance (endogenous - product of abnormalmetabolism or synthesis, exogenous - infectious agents or minerals)


  3. Gangrenous Necrosis
    occurs in LUNGS; usually results from TB PULMONARY INFECTION, especially by Myobacterium tuberculosis; Combination of COAGULATIVE AND LIQUEFACTIVE necroses; The dead cells disintegrate, bt debris is not completely digested by hydrolases; Tissues resemble clumped cheese in that they are soft and granular; A granulomatous inflammatory wall encloses areas of caseous necrosis; Tb starts to kill lung tissue (liquefactive) and macrophages come in and stop it and coagulate the tissue - why you see tubricles in lungs


  4. Ischemiareduced blood supply; often caused by gradual narrowing of arteries (artiosclerosis) and complete blockage by blood clots (thrombosis); progressive hypoxia caused by gradual arterial obstruction is better tlerated than acute anoxia (total lack of oxygen)


  5. Suffocationoxygen failing to reach the blood, can result from lack of O2 in environment (entrapment in enclosed space or filling enviro w/suffocating gas), or blockage of external airways (compression of chest, choking)