222 terms

Biology 210 Final Exam

is the study of the shape and structure of the human body and the relationship between body parts.
is the study of the structure of matter, the composition of
substances, their properties, their chemical reactions, and
- examples of chemical reactions: digestion of food
formation of urine
manufacture of proteins
building up of complex materials from simpler ones
is the study of the functions of the body parts. How the body parts work & carry out their life-sustaining activities.
the study of chemical reactions of living things
breaking down of complex materials into simpler ones with the
release of energy
the study of tissues and organs making up the entire body of an organism.
The maintenance of a rather stable internal environment
- Human survival depends on maintaining and/or restoration of
- functional activities of cell,
- sum of all chemical reactions within the cell
- consists of four processes
ie. growth, repair, energy release, food use, secretions
+ electric charge, found in the nucleus
no electric charge, found in the nucleus
- electric charge, found around the nucleus in orbital rings.
is the basic unit of structure and function of all living things.
Cell length:
few micrometers "to well over a meter"-(Muscles, nerves)
Extracellular fluid
: interstitial fluid, derived from blood, bathes cells
- consists of: amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, hormones, neurotransmitters, salts, waste products
- cellular material found between the nucleus and the plasma membrane.
- site for most cellular activities
- protein synthesis
- anaerobic respiration
3 major elements of cytoplasm
2)Cell organelles
viscous, semitransparent fluid
- mostly water (70 to 90%)
- proteins, lipids, minerals, salts and carbohydrates
Cell Organelle
- Consists of protein and RNA
- sites of protein synthesis
Cell Organelle
Centrosome (if present)- enclose the centrioles
Cell Organelle
- two cylindrical organelles perpendicular to each other
- form spindle fibers during cell division - used to move and
organize the chromosomes.
Cell Organelle
Endoplasmic Reticulum
- provides passageway for transport
- site for many chemical reactions
- provides some internal support
Cell Organelle
Two types of ER
1). Rough:
2). Smooth:
Cell Organelle
- site of aerobic respiration
- ATP production
- "Power-house"
- Double membrane
Cell Organelle
cristae: One of the inward projections or folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
Cell Organelle
matrix:- self replicate: contain both DNA & RNA. Fission:
Cell Organelle
Golgi apparatus
- flatten membranous sacs
- stores and packages secretions for discharge from the cell
- form the lysosomes
Cell organelle
- contain powerful digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases)
- digest worn out cell organelles and foreign matter (Intracellular
the breakdown of plant or animal tissue by the action of enzymes contained in the tissue affected; self-digestion.
minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals.
Cytoskeletal Elements
1). Microfilaments:
2). Microtubules:
Protein synthesis
Protoplasm- Includes both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
• controls the activities of the cell
• facilitate cell division = Mitosis
• DNA and proteins
• semi-fluid medium called nucleoplasm
Nucleolus (Nucleoli)
• located within the nucleus, none membrane bound
• produce ribosomes which will eventually be released into the cytoplasm
• usually 1 or 2 per cell, but may have more
Nuclear membrane
surround nucleus - double layer with openings -
granular, threadlike material composed of DNA and histone proteins
PLASMA MEMBRANE (Cell membrane)
• surrounds the cell
• separates the cell's cytoplasm from the external environment and from neighboring cells.
• "selectively, semi-, or differentially permeable"
• made-up of protein and lipids
• double layer of phospholipid molecules with proteins and cholesterol dispersed in it
Protein (as it relates to ^)
• Hydrophobic end = "tail": hydrocarbon fatty acid chains
• Hydrophilic end = "head": polar phosphorus-containing end
Passive transport
*(what is passive transport)Does not require energy input from the cell,
Examples of pass. transport
1). Diffusion- act or process of diffusing or being diffused; dispersion
2). Facilitated Diffusion- a process by which substances are transported across cell membranes by means of protein carrier molecules
3). Osmosis- the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.

the diffusion of fluids through membranes or porous partitions.
an grouping of similar cells and cell products forming a definite kind of structural material with a specific function, in a multicellular organism.
- the smallest piece of an element and is invisible to the human eye
- composed of subatomic particles: (Protons, Neutrons, Electrons)
Def: one of a class of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
. 92 naturally occurring elements
. 26 are found in the human body
. 18 are trace elements < 0.01%
a grouping of tissues into a distinct structure, that performs a specialized task
any of various bodily parts or structures that are anatomically or physiologically related: the digestive system
An individual form of life, such as an animal, a body made up of organs, organelles, or other parts that work together to carry on the various processes of life.
The smallest particle into which an element or a compound can be divided without changing its chemical and physical properties; a group of atoms that is held together chemically.
elements combined together in a definite proportion by weight

Examples of compounds:
• Water = H20 -
• Table Salt = NaCl -
• Hydrochloric acid = HCl -
• Sodium bicarbonate = NaCHO3 -
• Glucose = C6H12O6 -
• Carbon dioxide = CO2 -
• Carbon monoxide = CO -
- Backbone consists of a metal (examples Al, Au, Ag, Pb)
- usually do not contain both Carbon & Hydrogen at the same time
- tend to have relatively few atoms
- found in living organisms
- tend to have ionic bonds -

- Most contain both Carbon and Hydrogen at the same time.
(examples of organic compounds without both C & H: graphite, diamonds)
- tend to have many atoms
- tend to be larger than inorganic compounds
- tend to have covalent bonds -
- more than a million known organic compounds
(Organic Compound)
- Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
- Primary source of nutrient energy for cells (Glucose)
- some structure -
- Sugars
Carbohydrates divided into 3 groups
1). Monosaccharides:
- single or simple sugars
- sugars which can not be broken down any further
• Glucose - blood sugar
• Fructose - fruits & honey
• Galactose - Agar
2). Disaccharides-
- Double sugar
• Sucrose - table sugar
• Maltose - malt sugar
• Lactose - milk sugar

3). Polysaccharides
- large complex molecules made up of hundreds to thousands of
glucose molecules (or other simple sugar) bonded together in
one long chainlike molecule.

• Starch - made in plant cells (storage form of Glucose)
• Cellulose - gives support to plant cells
• Glycogen - storage form of Glucose in animals
synthesis of a large molecule from small ones by the loss of a water molecule.
a large molecule is broken down into smaller molecules by the addition of water.
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, also called fats
Lipids Are Divided Into Three Major Groups
1). FATS & OILS (Neutral Fats; triglycerides)
- made up of glycerol and fatty acids
- also called triglycerides - high energy storage, most abundant type
2). PHOSPHOLIPIDS- found in cell membranes, the brain and nervous tissue
- contain cholesterol
- essential in the structure of a semipermeable cell membrane
- Vitamin D -
- Hormones
- Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and usually sulfur and
- important in outer coat of viruses
- binding and structural components of all living things
- made up of amino acids:
Any of a group of organic compounds of nitrogen that may be considered ammonia derivatives in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by one or more hydrocarbon radicals.
organic acid group
Any of various acids containing one or more carbon-containing radicals.
• are specialized proteins
• control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts
• affects rate and speed of chemical reactions
• used over and over
• very specific
any of various organic or inorganic substances necessary to the function of an enzyme.
a molecule that provides the transfer site for biochemical reactions catalyzed by an enzyme.
Consist of: Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus

1). DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid - carries the genetic information,
2). RNA = ribonucleic acid - help in synthesizing proteins,

Three types:
a. mRNA
b. tRNA
c. rRNA
Three types of RNA
ATP synthesis is an all-important cellular function because it provides a form of chemical energy that is usable by all body cells!
Molecular Formula
A chemical formula that shows the total number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not their structural arrangement. For example, the molecular formula of aspirin is C 9 H 8 O 4 .
composed of two or more components physically intermixed together
3 types of mixtures
1). Solutions:
a. solvent-
b. solutes-
2). Colloids:
3). Suspensions:
Body Planes
Frontal (coronal)-
Transverse- (Horizontal)
Oblique Plane-
6. Name each of the body cavities and place the following organs in the appropriate cavity:
. Heart
. Lungs
. Stomach
. Brain
. Spinal
. Cord
. Liver
. Intestines
1. Dorsal Cavity
- cranial cavity:
- spinal (vertebral) cavity:
2. Ventral Cavity
a. Thoracic cavity
- pleural cavities (lungs)
- pericardial cavity (heart)
- mediastinum -
b. Abdominopelvic cavity
- abdominal cavity:
- pelvic cavity -
Other Body Cavities:
1. Orbital: eyes, optic muscles, optic nerves, tear ducts
2. Nasal: nose
3. Buccal (oral): teeth and tongue
4. Middle ear
2. Know the location of body membranes:
Visceral & parietal: "Serous Membranes"



Mucous Membranes
A membrane lining all body passages that communicate with the exterior, such as the respiratory, genitourinary, and alimentary tracts, and having cells and associated glands that secrete mucus. Also called mucosa .
the membrane, consisting of a double layer of peritoneum, that invests the intestines, attaching them to the posterior wall of the abdomen, maintaining them in position in the abdominal cavity, and supplying them with blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics, especially the part of this membrane investing the jejunum and ileum.
1. Upper
- Right & Left Hypochondriac
- Middle: Epigastric

2. Middle
- Right & Left Lumbar
- Middle: Umbilical
3. Lower
- Right & Left Iliac (Inquinal)
- Middle: Hypogastric (Pubic)
3. Be able to understand what is meant by and be able to use all regional and directional anatomic terms used in this course.
Axial part
Appendicular part
Anterior (ventral)
Posterior (Dorsal)
Cranial - Head
Caudal - TAIL
Sagittal (median)
Superior vs inferior:
- Superior
- Inferior
Medial (mesial) vs lateral:
- Medial
- Lateral
Proximal vs distal:
- Proximal
- Distal
Superficial vs deep:
- Superficial
- Deep
External vs internal:
- External
- Internal
is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a solution.
- pH scale - ranges from 0 to 14
- 7.0 is neutral
- > 7.0 is basic
- < 7.0 is acidic

EXAMPLES: Human tears pH = 7.3 Acidic or basic?
Human blood pH = 7.4 Acidic or basic?
Human urine pH = 6.0 Acidic or basic?
Water pH = 7.0 Acidic or basic
ionic bond
A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges. Ionic bonds form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom. These bonds can form between a pair of atoms or between molecules and are the type of bond found in salts.
A carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed to a simpler carbohydrate by hydrolysis, especially one of the hexoses. Also called simple sugar .
- help a living organism to maintain a constant pH value which contributes to homeostasis.
covalent bond
A chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between two atoms. Usually each atom contributes one electron to form a pair of electrons that are shared by both atoms.
A sweet, syrupy liquid obtained from animal fats and oils or by the fermentation of glucose.Glycerol consists of a propane molecule attached to three hydroxyl (OH) groups. Also called glycerin, glycerine. Chemical formula: C 3 H 8 O 3 .
- releases H ions
- a substance that when dissolved in water, will ionize into
positively charged hydronium ions (H3O+) or Hydrogen ions (H+)
and negatively charged ions of some other element
EXAMPLE: HCL + H2O -> H3O+ + Cl-
any negatively charged atom or group of atoms ( opposed to cation).
any positively charged atom or group of atoms ( opposed to anion).
hydrogen bond
chemical bond formed between an electropositive atom (typically hydrogen) and a strongly electronegative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for the bonding of water molecules in liquid and solid states, and are weaker than covalent and ionic bonds.
fatty acid
any of a class of aliphatic carboxylic acids, such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid, that form part of a lipid molecule
nucleic acid
Any of a group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses, composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, and phosphoric acid. Nucleic acids in the form of DNA and RNA control cellular function and heredity.
- take up H ions
- a substance that when dissolved in water, ionizes into negatively
charged hydroxide (OH-) ions and positively charged ions of a
EXAMPLE: NaOH -> Na+ + OH-
Atomic number
Number of protons = Number of electrons in an atom, therefore atoms are electrically neutral.
same number of protons, but the number of neutrons is different
exhibit atomic decay which is called radioactivity
- unstable and decay to more stable forms by emitting alpha, beta, or gamma rays
- can be used for diagnosis
- all types damage living tissue
Atomic weight
The average mass of an atom of an element, usually expressed relative to the atomic mass of carbon 12.
A polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and occurs mainly in liver and muscle tissue; it is readily converted to glucose. Also called animal starch .
A monosaccharide sugar the blood that serves as the major energy source of the body; it occurs in most plant and animal tissue. Also called blood sugar .
Any of a class of organic compounds that are esters consisting of three fatty acids joined to glycerol. The fatty acids may be the same or may be different. Triglycerides are the chief lipids constituting fats and oils and function to store chemical energy in plants and animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted together into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine; it carries the cell's genetic information and hereditary characteristics via its nucleotides and their sequence and is capable of self-replication and RNA synthesis.
Any of various phosphorus-containing lipids, such as lecithin, that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule such as glycerol. Phospholipids are the main lipids in cell membranes.
A white crystalline substance found in animal tissues and various foods, normally synthesized by the liver and important as a constituent of cell membranes and a precursor to steroid hormones. Its level in the bloodstream can influence the pathogenesis of certain conditions, such as the development of atherosclerotic plaque and coronary artery disease.
When an acid and a base are combined, they form a salt and water
HCL + NaOH -> NaCl + H2O
8. Name the four most abundant elements in the human body:
1). Oxygen (O): 65%
2). Carbon (C): 18.5%
3). Hydrogen (H): 9.5%
4). Nitrogen (N): 3.2%
The movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Atoms and small molecules can move across a cell membrane by diffusion.
Genetic code
the order in which the nitrogenous bases of DNA are arranged in the molecule, which determines the type and amount of protein synthesized in the cell. The four bases are arranged in groups of three in a specific order, each group acting as a unit (codon), which specifies a particular amino acid
The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically in four stages (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) resulting in two new nuclei, each of which has exactly the same chromosome and DNA content as the original cell. Also called indirect nuclear division , karyokinesis , mitotic division .

The entire process of cell division including division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components.
The movement of a solvent through a membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations. The solvent from the side of weaker concentration usually moves to the side of the stronger concentration, diluting it, until the concentrations of the solutions are equal on both sides of the membrane. ◇ The pressure exerted by the molecules of the solvent on the membrane they pass through is called osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is the energy driving osmosis and is important for living organisms because it allows water and nutrients dissolved in water to pass through cell membranes.
Either of the two strands formed when a chromosome duplicates itself as part of the early stages of cell division. The chromatids are joined together by a single centromere and later separate to become individual chromosomes.
any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively.
The jellylike material that makes up much of a cell inside the cell membrane, and, in eukaryotic cells, surrounds the nucleus. The organelles of eukaryotic cells, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, and (in green plants) chloroplasts, are contained in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm and the nucleus make up the cell's protoplasm .
process of producing new cells by division of existing cells includes:
• Interphase-
• Mitosis (Division of the nucleus)-
• Cytokinesis (Division of the cytoplasm-
The stage in the development of a cell following mitosis or meiosis, during which the nucleus is not dividing. In cells that will undergo further division, the DNA in the nucleus is duplicated in preparation for the next division.
(Division of the nucleus)
(Division of the cytoplasm)
Steps in the cell cycle
1). Interphase
- metabolic activities of the cell to maintain homeostasis
- replication of DNA
- growth in all 3 subphases
- protein synthesis
3 Subphases
1). G1:
2). S:
3). G2:
When does a cell divide?
A. Prophase
- centrioles move toward the poles
- nuclear membrane dissappears
- Chromosomes become visiable
- spindle fibers form
B. Metaphase
- chromosomes line up by their centromere along the equatorial plane
- spindle fibers
C. Anaphase
- Chromosomes separate into chromatids by shortening of the
spindle fibers
- Chromatids pulled toward the poles
D. Telophase
- Chromatids have reached the poles and begin to uncoil
- nuclear membrane reappears
- spindle breaks down and disappears
- division of the cytoplasm which results in two daughter cells
identical to the original cell
- begins in late anaphase, but not visible until Telophase
resting potential restored
the normal elastic tension of living muscles, arteries, etc., by which the tone of the system is maintained.
Isotonic Solution
a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood
more solutes outside cell, ie. cells lose water by osmosis and shrink
less solutes outside cell, ie. cells take in water and swell, may (lysis)
The act or process of filtering, especially the process of passing a liquid or gas, such as air, through a filter in order to remove solid particles.
Active transport
process in which molecules move across a cell
membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of greater
concentration (against a concentration gradient).
- Requires energy (ATP) from the cell
1). Carrier molecule:
2). Endocytosis (2 types):
a. Phagocytosis:
b. Pinocytosis:
3). Exocytosis:
Carrier molecule
Carrier proteins are proteins that transport a specific substance or group of substances through intracellular compartments or in extracellular fluids
A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.
the process by which a cell, such as a white blood cell, ingests microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles
the transport of fluid into a cell by means of local infoldings by the cell membrane so that a tiny vesicle or sac forms around each droplet, which is then taken into the interior of the cytoplasm.
A process of cellular secretion or excretion in which substances contained in vesicles are discharged from the cell by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the outer cell membrane. Also called emiocytosis
A cell of growing cartilage tissue. Also called chondroplast
A sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue that connects two bones or holds an organ of the body in place.
one of the large multinuclear cells in growing bone concerned with the absorption of osseous tissue, as in the formation of canals.
Any of various tough, fibrous proteins found in bone, cartilage, skin, and other connective tissue. Collagens have great tensile strength, and provide these body structures with the ability to withstand forces that stretch them.
a bone-forming cell
Exocrine glands
Any gland of the body that produces secretions and discharges them into a cavity or through a duct to the surface of the body. In mammals, the sweat glands and mammary glands are exocrine glands.
a cell of osseous tissue within the bone matrix; a bone cell.
a cell that contributes to the formation of connective tissue fibers.
a cord or band of dense, tough, inelastic, white, fibrous tissue, serving to connect a muscle with a bone or part; sinew.
Endocrine glands
Any of various ductless glands, such as the thyroid, adrenal, or pituitary, having hormonal secretions that pass directly into the bloodstream. Also called ductless gland .
A connective tissue cell that occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix. Also called cartilage cell
a primordial cell capable of developing into any type of blood cell.
Simple squamous Epithelium
Epithelium made up of a single layer of flattened scalelike cells.
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar Epithelium
The term pseudostratified is derived from the appearance of this epithelium in section which conveys the erroneous ( pseudo means false) impression that there is more than one layer of cells, when in fact this is a true simple epithelium since all the cells rest on the basement membrane. The nuclei of these cells, however, are disposed at different levels, thus creating the illusion of cellular stratification. Not all ciliated cells extend to the luminal surface; such cells are capable of cell division providing replacements for cells lost or damaged.
A. Functions:
1.) protection
2). secretions
3). regulate passage
4). cover
5). filtration
6). absorption
7). Excretion
1). Covering & lining epithelium:
2). Glandular epithelium:
- secretions:
2 Types
a. Endocrine glands:
- hormones
b. Exocrine glands: duct -
Types of Exocrine glands
1). Goblet cells:
2). Merocrine gland:
3). Holocrine gland:
4). Apocrine gland:
1). Very little extracellular material, cells packed tightly together
2). Always has one free surface - apical surface
- basal surface connected to a nonliving adhesive material
called the basal lamina
- basal lamina connected to the nonliving reticular lamina of the connective tissue
- basal lamina + recticular lamina = basement membrane
3). Contains no blood vessels - avascularity
- nourished by substances diffusing from blood vessels in
underlying connective tissue
4). Undergo rapid cell division
D. Classification (All are polyhedral in shape)

1). Number of cell layers
a. simple:
b. stratified:
c. pseudostratified:
2). Shape of cells
a. squamous:
b. cuboidal:
c. columnar:
3). Covering and lining
a. ciliated vs nonciliated
b. keratinized or nonkeratinized
A. Functions
1). Support and Connect (Binding)
2). Protection
3). Storage
4). Insulation
5). Fills in spaces
B. Characteristics of Connective Tissue
1). Derived from Mesenchyme
2). Degrees of vascularity
3). Few cells surrounded by a nonliving intercellular matrix
a. Ground substance:
b. Fibers:
Three types
1. Collagen -
2. Elastic -
3. Reticular -
c. Cell:
4). Not exposed to external environment
Types of Connective Tissue
1). Adipose:
2). Loose (Areolar):
3). Dense fibrous:
Types of Dense fibrous Connective Tissue
a. Regular:
b. Irregular:
c. Elastic:
4). Supportive:
5) Vascular
Types of Supportive Connective Tissue
a. Osseous (Bone):
b. Cartilage:
1. Hyaline:
2. Fibrocartilage:
3. Elastic:
Types of Vascular Connective Tissue
a. Blood:
b. Lymph:
A. Function
- Irritability: ability to respond to environmental changes
- Conductivity: ability to carry a nerve impulse
B. Composition
1). neurons
2). Neuroglial cells:
Supporting cells (Neuroglial cells)
- small, nonexcitable cells, surround and wrap neurons
- assist, segregate and insulate neurons
A. Skeletal
- striated and voluntary
- multinucleated
B. Cardiac
- striated and involuntary
- 1 or 2 nuclei
C. Smooth
- nonstriated and involuntary
- uninucleated
Be able to recognize the four major categories and functions of tissues.
1). Epithelial
2). Connective
3). Muscle
a. skeletal
b. cardiac
c. smooth
4). Nervous
23. Be able to recognize the characteristics that distinguish skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle tissues from one another.
A. Skeletal
- striated and voluntary
- multinucleated
- attached to bone or to skin
- single, very long, cylindrical fibers
- speed of contraction slow to fast
B. Cardiac
- striated and involuntary
- 1 or 2 nuclei
- branching chains of uninucleated or binucleated cells
- striated with intercalated discs
- involuntary
- slow rate of rhythmic contractions
Location: found only in the heart
C. Smooth
- nonstriated and involuntary
- uninucleated
- small and spindle shaped, often arranged in sheets
- single, involuntary, fusiform, uninucleated muscle
- no striations and no sarcomeres
- speed of contraction slow and do not tire easily
- rhythmic contractions
- lack elaborate connective tissue coverings
- contract for extended periods at low energy cost and without fatigue
- muscle in the walls of hollow organs
- intrinsic eye muscles
.Be able to identify which myofilaments are thick and which are the thin filaments.
• Filaments: actin (Thin filaments) & myosin (Thick filaments)
a contractile fibril of skeletal muscle, composed mainly of actin and myosin.
Two types of Intracellular Tubules
1. Transverse tubules (T-tubules):
2. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum:
Motor unit
A single somatic motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers innervated by it.
The contractile unit of a skeletal muscle fiber. Sarcomeres are divided into bands of filaments made of actin or myosin. During muscle contraction, the filaments slide over each other to cause shortening of the sarcomere.
Synaptic cleft
the small gap, measured in nanometers, between an axon terminal and any of the cell membranes in the immediate vicinity.
Threshold stimulus
A stimulus that is just strong enough to evoke a response.
operating or moving in one direction only; not changing direction: a unidirectional flow.
Rigor mortis
the stiffness of joints and muscular rigidity of a dead body, caused by depletion of ATP in the tissues. It begins two to four hours after death and lasts up to about four days, after which the muscles and joints relax
Oxygen debt
The amount of extra oxygen required by muscle tissue to oxidize lactic acid and replenish depleted ATP and phosphocreatine following vigorous exercise.
The oxygen-transporting protein of muscle, resembling blood hemoglobin in function but with only one heme as part of the molecule and with one fourth the molecular weight. Also called muscle hemoglobin
The red respiratory protein of red blood cells that transports oxygen as oxyhemoglobin from the lungs to the tissues, where the oxygen is readily released and the oxyhemoglobin becomes hemoglobin.
the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber.
A thin membrane enclosing a striated muscle fiber.
Muscle tone
normal tonicity of the muscles; "exercise improves muscle tone"
Creatine phosphate
(CP)= CP + ADP ® Creatine + ATP
Lactic acid
end product of oxygen debt, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid as oxygen is used up
The external sheath of connective tissue surrounding a muscle.
the connective tissue surrounding bundles of skeletal muscle fibers.
The fine connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle fiber.
24. Be able to recognize the functions of the integumentary system.
Major components:
1). Skin: tough and pliable
- also called: integument, cutaneous membrane, epidermis
2). Derivatives: Hair, nails, glands (sweat & oil)
1). Covers
- 1.5 to 2 m2 surface area
- ~ 9 lbs
- 1.5 to 4 mm thickness
2). Protection
- ultraviolet radiation
- protective covering: abrasion
dehydration, injury, germ invasion
- chemical barrier
What is a germ?
What is a pathogen?
3). Helps in regulating body temperature
- heat loss
- evaporation: perspiration
4). Excretion
- organic wastes, salts, water
5). Sensory perception
- receptors- temperature (heat & cold), pain, pressure, touch
- free nerve endings
6). Temporary storage
- fats, glucose, water, salts
- blood
7). Absorption
- certain drugs

8). Synthesis of Vitamin D
- Bone formation, calcium metabolism, teeth
1). Hair: 3 layers
- outer = cuticle: single layer of flat keratinized cells, overlap
- middle = cortex: elongated, keratinized, nonliving cells, contains
hair pigment
- inner = medulla: may also contain pigment
= root: implanted in the skin in an impocketing called the
hair follicle
= shaft: extends out from the epidermis, shape determines if hair
is straight or curly
- color = melanocytes at base of hair follicle
- Goose bumps: Arrector pili muscles contract
2). Nails: epidermis is hard and keratinized to a greater degree
- protection
3). Sweat glands: regulate body temperature
= sudoriferous glands
- water, salts, organic waste
~ 2.5 million
Two Types
a). Eccrine:
b). Apocrine:
Ceruminous glands = wax glands: secretes cerumen, found in the
ear canals and produce "earwax"
Mammary glands = specialized sweat glands modified to secrete
4). Sebaceous glands "Oil"
- are simple alveolar glands which secretes sebum:
lubricates the skin, keeping it soft and pliable
- inhibits bacterial growth
- reduces evaporative water loss
any of a class of insoluble pigments, found in all forms of animal life, that account for the dark color of skin, hair, fur, scales, feathers, etc.
a fibrous protein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in hair, nails, feathers, hooves, etc
26. Be able to define and describe the components of the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis.
- 35 to 45 days
- outermost covering which is composed of epithelial cells and
lacks blood vessels
- epithelial cells: stratified squamous epithelial cells
- keratinized or nonkeratinized: depends on location
(oil and sweat glands, finger nails, and hair follicles are
derived of the epidermis not the dermis!)
- thick inner layer, and thickness varies:
soles of feet and palms of hand = thick
shoulders and back = thinner, but thicker than abdomen and
- strong and flexible connective tissue
- contains: elastic fibers
nerve endings
arrector pili muscle -
receptors: touch, temperature, pain, pressure
blood vessels
lymphatic vessels
Two Layers of Dermis
1). Papillary:
Finger prints
- results from the dermal papillae
ridges in the skin
2). Reticular: ~ 80% of the dermis
HYPODERMIS: The subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is the deepest layer of the skin. It is missing on parts of the body where the skin is especially thin-the eyelids, nipples, genitals, and shins. Subcutaneous tissue acts both as an insulator, conserving body heat, and as a shock absorber, protecting internal organs from injury. It also stores fat as an energy reserve in the event extra calories are needed to power the body. The blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels, and hair follicles also cross through this layer.
Be able to name the five layers of the epidermis in the proper sequence from superficial to deep and vice versa. Be able to describe the function of each layer.
1). Stratum corneum - outermost layer, 20 to 30 cell layers thick,
~ 75% of total epidermal thickness
- first line of defense
- outward thickening = callus
- inward thickening = corn

2). Stratum lucidum: absent in thin skin areas of the body. Found in thicker areas such as plams of the hands and the soles of the feet.
3). Stratum granulosum: keratinization begins, cells begin to die
4). Stratum spinosum: some cell division
5). Stratum basale - inner most layer, most of the cell division
Stratum spinosum and stratum basale = stratum germinativum
a tissue or layer of cells beneath the epidermis.
Sebaceous glands
any of the cutaneous glands that secrete oily matter for lubricating hair and skin.
- cells responsible for skin pigmentation
- found in the stratum basale
- produce melanin (yellow to brown to black color) amount and color determines skin color
keratin - fibrous proteins, hard, nonliving which makes the epidermis waterproof
A central canal and the concentric osseous lamellae encircling it, occurring in compact bone. Also called haversian system .
one of the numerous minute cavities in the substance of bone, supposed to contain nucleate cells.
a thin plate, scale, membrane, or layer, as of bone, tissue, or cell walls.
Spongy bone
- No osteon
- Trabaculae with irregularly arranged lamellae
- osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi
Bone Growth
1. Growth in length of long bones
a. Females to about age 18
b. Males to about age 20-21
2. Appositional Growth
- increase in thickness (diameter)
3. Hormones
a. Growth hormone - anterior pituitary gland
b. Thyroxine - thyroid gland -
c. Testosterone
d. Estrogen
e. Calcitonin - thyroid gland -
f. Parathyroid hormone - parathyroid glands
Be able to describe bone ossification
1). Formation of the bony skeleton
2). Bone growth
3). Remodeling and repair: injuries, additional bone strength needed
Formation: Bone tissue begins to develop around week 6
Bones which form by Intramembranous ossification
Intramembranous ossification:
1. Most skull bones and clavicles - flat
2. Bone replaces fibrous connective tissue membranes
3. Steps
a. Formation of bone matrix within the fibrous membrane
b. Formation of woven bone and the periosteum
c. Formation of compact bone plates
Bones which form by Endochondral ossification
1. Begins third month of development
2. Hyaline cartilage
3. Most skeletal bones
Axial skeleton
- forms the long axis of the body
- central support
- protects internal organs
- skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum, hyoid bone
Appendicular Skeleton
bones of the upper and lower extremities and the
girdles that attach them to the axial skeleton
Synarthrosis (pertaining to articulations)
- immovable joints
- example: adult skull (sutures)
Amphiarthrosis (pertaining to articulations)
- partially movable joints -
- example: attachment of the ribs to the spine
Diarthrosis (pertaining to articulations)
- freely movable joints
- most of our joints
- examples: knee, elbow
Gomphosis (pertaining to articulations)
fibrous joint between a tooth and its bony alveolar socket
General Structure of Synovial Joints
a. Articular Cartilage
b. Joint Cavity
c. Articular Capsule
d. Synovial Fluid
e. Reinforcing Ligaments
a sac in which fluid is secreted, reduces friction between a tendon and a bone, or ligament and bone
Types of Synovial Joints
a. Plane joints:
b. Hinge joints:
c. Pivot joints:
d. Saddle joints:
e. Ball-and-socket joint:
f. condyloid joints:
Synovial Joint movement
Gliding (translation) -
Angular movements -
Flexion -
Extension -
Dorsiflexion -
Plantar flexion -
Abduction -
Adduction -
circumduction -
Rotation -
A. FUNCTIONAL JOINT: Based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint
3 Types of Functional Joints
1). Diarthroses:
- freely movable joints
- most of our joints
- examples: knee, elbow
2). Amphiarthroses:
- partially movable joints -
- example: attachment of the ribs to the spine
3). Synarthroses:
- immovable joints
- example: adult skull (sutures)
soft spot on baby's head, i.e. no bone
Three types of Structural Joints
1). Fibrous:
a. sutures -
b. syndesmoses -
c. gomphoses - fibrous joint between a tooth and its bony alveolar socket
2). Cartilaginous:
a. synchondroses - sites of bone growth, hyaline cartilage unites bones
b. symphyses- designed for strength with fexibility
3). Synovial- all joints of the limbs, most joints of the body
. Central Nervous System (CNS)
. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
B. FUNCTIONAL (Physiological):
. Sensory (afferent) Division
. Motor (Efferent) Division
. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Two Major Divisions of the ANS (maintain homeostasis)
a. Parasympathetic:
b. Sympathetic:
Central Nervous System (CNS)
a. Brain & spinal cord
b. Control center for the entire system and integration
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
a. 12 pairs of cranial nerves
b. 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Major Function:
Sensory (afferent) Division
a. Somatic & visceral sensory neurons
b. Function:
Motor (Efferent) Division
a. Motor neurons
b. Function:
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) "Subdivision of Motor Division"
a. conveys information from the CNS to skeletal muscles by motor nerve fibers
b. voluntary, conscious control
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) "Subdivision of Motor Division"
a. conveys information from the CNS to smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands
b. involuntary, without conscious control
Neuroglial Cell "Supporting Cell" (Identify:Function/Location)
- small, nonexcitable cells, surround and wrap neurons
- assist, segregate and insulate neurons
- Found in the Nervous Tissue
- large complex cells
- highly specialized cells which conduct messages
- extreme longevity (over 100 years)
- high metabolic rate
Neuron processes
- tracts
- nerves
- Dendrites
- Axon
- carries impulses toward the cell body
- carries impulses away from the cell body
Axon Parts
- Axon collateral:
- Axonal terminals:
- Telodendria:
- Myelin sheath:
- specialized covering
- speeds up the nerve impulse
- protects axon (myelin = fatty substance = white matter)
A. Structure:
. Anaxonic
. Multipolar
. Bipolar
. Unipolar
B. Physiological:
. Sensory neurons (Afferent)
. Motor neurons (Efferent)
. Interneuron (Association)
Sensory neurons (Afferent)
carry impulses toward spinal cord and brain
Motor neurons (Efferent)
carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Interneuron (Association)
carry impulses from one neuron to another inside central nervous system
Tight junctions
protein's membranes adjacent to each other fuse together like a zipper, impermeable junction
Example: epithelial cells lining digestive tract and adjacent blood vessels
anchoring, adhesion, coupling along sides of abutting cells
Gap junctions
allow direct passage of chemical substances between adjacent cells