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26 terms

Ch. 3: Cells!

BIO 210
STUDY
PLAY
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
enzyme
specialized protein catalyst that speed up chemical reactions
electrolytes
minerals that carry electrical charges that help maintain the body's fluid balance
acid
substances that release hydrogen ions (protons) in water. proton donors
base
a compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water, protons acceptors
glycogen
storage form of glucose in animals
starch
storage form of glucose in plants
plasma membrane
thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
proteins
nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues: amino acids are building blocks
carbohydrates
main source of energy for the body (ratio 1:2:1)
lipids
biochemicals that do not dissolve in water (fats, oils, and waxes) make up cell membranes, store energy
nucleic acids
very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
DNA and RNA
cytosol
The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
nucleoli
dark-staining spherical bodies within the nucleus; site of ribosome production.
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
tonicity
The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
hemolysis
the destruction of red blood cells
interphase
cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
mitosis
cell division/ the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the dna is distributed into each daughter cell
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
apoptosis
programmed cell death
pH
a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is,
scale ranges from 0 to 14

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