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Sociology- Unit 2
Terms in this set (55)
represents your conscious experience of having a separate and unique identity and is the sum total of your perceptions and beliefs about yourself. It is the most central aspect of your personality.
people in your life whose opinions are important and regularly considered during interactions.
The Generalized Other
classes of people with whom a person interacts on the basis of generalized roles rather than individualized characteristics.
includes all the ways the newborn is molded into a social being capable of interacting in and meeting the expectations of society.
Social Construction of Reality
what people define as real because of their background assumptions and life experiences with others.
when children put themselves in someone else's shoes, understand how he/she feels, and anticipate how he/she will act.
The Looking Glass Self
a theory that explains that our sense of self results from the reflection of who we think we see by observing the treatment and behaviors of others towards us.
wild or untamed children who grow up without typical adult socialization influences.
people of roughly the same age (same stage of development and maturity), similar social identity, and close social proximity.
the imparting of social values of the society by the schools of that society.
an institution that controls almost all aspects of its members' lives and all aspects of the individual life is controlled by those in authority in the institution.
occurs in later childhood and adolescence when children go to school and come under the influence of non-family members.
more technically defined as the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group, by which we become functioning members of society.
Nature v. Nurture
the debate over the influence of biological versus social influences in socialization.
when information is distributed to large groups of people through a variety of methods including, but not limited to, television, radio, movies, music , books, magazines, and the Internet.
the process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
A status present at birth (race, sex, or class)
any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance.
the state of being a part insider and a part outsider in the social structure.
A specific position that an individual occupies in a group
attained through one's choices and efforts (college student, movie star, teacher, or athlete).
a number of people who share common characteristics.
stands out above our other statuses and distracts others from really seeing who we are.
All of the statuses that we occupy at the same time
The expected behavior associated with a particular status position
the complex framework of societal institutions and social practices that make up a society and organizes and establishes limits on people's behavior.
A condition in which the performance in one status interferes with the performance of a role in another status
A set of two or more people who share common identity, interact regularly, and have shared expectations (roles)
a collection of people in the same place at the same time with no sense of interdependence.
an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters.
a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
An abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon
a process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals.
A small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to face, emotion based interactions over an extended period of time
A larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time
relates to a group's ability to maintain itself in the face of obstacles.
A group of two people
When two group members pressure a third member into some sort of behavior that is potentially positive or negative,
Goal or task oriented leadership
Authority that rests solely on the personal qualities of individual leaders and on the receptivity of followers
Authority that is a function of explicit laws or rules that define the legitimate uses of power
provides emotional support for members.
make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members.
when the occupancy of statuses are inconsistent with one another.
the material signs that inform others of a person's specific status.
encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building.
only minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisions.
The ability of persons or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others
when conflicting roles occur within the same status.
the exercise of power through force or the threat of force.
rooted in beliefs and practices that have been passed down over time.
a series of social relationships that links individuals directly to others and through them indirectly to still more people.
people join these organizations because they perceive their goals as being socially or morally worthwhile.
typically force people into them against their will.
typically joined because of some tangible benefit which people expect to receive.
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