general biology chapter3 &4

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1. DNA
2. RNA
3. DNA
4. RNA

1. transmission of genetic information to daughter cells
2. transfer of genetic information into protein
3. store of genetic information
4. decoding genetic information

2. waxes
3. steroid
4. phospholipids

1. energy storage
2. create a barrier to water loss
3. form hormones important in reproduction
4. plasma membrane structure

1.monounsaturated fatty acids
2. polyunsaturated fatty acids
3. saturated fatty acid

1. contain one double bonded carbon
2. liquid at room temperature
3. contain no double bonded carbons

1. primary
2. quaternary
3. secondary

1.the linear sequence of amino acids
2. two or more interacting polypeptides
3. repetitive folding patterns such as a helix and B pleated sheet
4. the three- dimensional structure of a polypeptide

1 starch
2 cellulose

1. moderate branching
2. unbranched
3. highly branched

1. starch
2. metabolic enzymes

2. protein
3. lipid
4. nucleic acid

The ability of ____to form four covalent bonds contributes to the diversity of organic compounds that can be formed.


a______is a compound that lowers the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.


The ______,____and______structtural levels of a protein describe a protein with a single polypeptide chain.

2. secondary
3. tertiary

_____are large molecules made from smaller organic molecules.


____bridges can form between the side chains of two cysteine amino acids.


the building blocks of nucleic acids are monomers called


carbon can form four bonds because it has only _______electrons in the outer energy____


DNA is_____stranded and RNA is primarily ____stranded

2. single

DNA molecules contain the sugar___as part of the backbone of the molecule


the four nitrogenous bases present in DNA are__________,___________,____,and______

1. adenine
2. guanine
3. thymine
4. cytosine



how are monomers and polymers related to one another

polymers are large macromolecules composed of many monomers linked together

how are nucleotides linked together to form nucleic acids

the phosphate group of one nucleotide is covalently linked to the sugar of the second nucleotide

how are structural isomers and stereoisomers different form one another?

only stereoisomer have identical bonding relationships but different structures
only structural isomers contain the same atoms,but with different bonding relationships.

how many polypeptides are involved in the quaternary structure of a protein

at least two polypeptides

If a protein may contain several different domains and each domain has____function


isomers are formed with the same atoms but with different bonding relationships


isomers have identical bonding, but the atoms are positioned differently, resulting mirror images.


isomers have identical bonding relationships but the atoms are positioned differently around bonds

cis-trans isomers

nitrogenous bases consist of a double or single ring of __________and ______________atoms

c atoms.

nucleotides are covalently linked by __bonds


the optimal distance between two atoms within a molecules is the van der waals


rank the following polysaccharides of glucose in order od most branched form to least branches form.

1. glycogen
2. starch
3. cellulose

_______reactions, which form polymers form simple monomers, are reversible through the process of ________________


Steroids all contain_______fused rings of carbon atoms with one or more polar __ groups attached to the ring structure


the sugar found in ribonucleotides of RNA is____________


two nucleotides are linked together by a ____________bond to form a string of nucleic acids


unsaturated fat have _________melting point that saturated fats


what are lipids

lipids are hydrophobic molecules composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon.

what are macromolecules

large molecules that are form by joining smaller molecules together

what are molecules that have identical molecular formulas but different structures called?


what are protein-protein interactions

when one protein binds to another, this is called a protein- protein interaction

what are proteins?

proteins are polymers essential to nearly all life processes

what are the four categories of macromolecules

nucleic acids

what are the major classes of lipids


what are the major components of nitrogenous bases

single or double carbon ring

what are the major differences between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis reactions

dehydration reactions involve the loss of water and hydrolysis reactions involve the addition of water
dehydration reactions form polymers hydrolysis reactions break down polymers into monomers.

what are the structural components of a polypeptide

2.peptide backbone
3. c-terminus

what are the three main properties of carbon that are important in forming organic molecules

1. carbon bonds are stable across a broad range of temperatures.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds with other atoms.
3 carbon can form both polar and nonpolar bonds

what are the two enantiomer of glucose

L-glucose and D-glucose

what are the two major classes of nucleic acids?


what are two examples of important functional group in organic molecules?

amino and carbonyl

what bonding properties of carbon allow for the creation of groups of atoms with distinct shapes and functions?

1.carbon containing molecules can form isomer.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds.
3. carbon can create double and triple bonds.

what four bases are found in RNA?


what is an alpha helix?

The repeating helical structure that is formed by a polypeptide backbone

what is determined by the expression of genetic information?

what type of cell is formed(liver or muscle)
the identity of an organism (eg human or mouse)

what is the difference between the N-terminus and the C-terminus of a polypeptide?

The N-terminus has a free amino group and the C-terminus has a free carboxyl group.

what occurs during hydrolysis reactions?

polymers are broken down one monomer at a time by the addition of water.

what of the following are examples of hydrolysis reactions

A sugar is broken down into fructose and glucose molecules
A strand of DNS is broken down into individual nucleotides

what regions of a phospholipid bilayer face water and which face the interior of the membrane aways from water?

the polar regions face water, and the nonpolar regions face the interior.

what type of bonds is responsible for the base pairing between two strands of DNA in the double helix?


which of the following are categories of macromolecules found in cells

nucleic acids

which of the following atoms form nonpolar covalent bonds with carbon


which of the following describes the relationship between condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis

dehydration synthesis is specific type of condensation reaction involving the loss of a water molecule.
condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis occur when two or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule.

which of the following describe sugar

The simplest sugar are monosaccharides
sugar contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
sugar store energy in their chemical bonds.

which of the following polysaccharides contain chain of the alpha-glucose isomer?


why do phospholipids arrage into bilayers

the bilayers is the most energetically favorable arrangement in aqueous solution.
the hydrophillic ends attract water while the hydrophobic ends exclude water

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