general biology chapter3 &4

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DNA is_____stranded and RNA is primarily ____stranded

2. single

what are the three main properties of carbon that are important in forming organic molecules

1. carbon bonds are stable across a broad range of temperatures.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds with other atoms.
3 carbon can form both polar and nonpolar bonds

1. starch
2. metabolic enzymes

2. protein
3. lipid
4. nucleic acid

what are molecules that have identical molecular formulas but different structures called?


what are lipids

lipids are hydrophobic molecules composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon.

The ______,____and______structtural levels of a protein describe a protein with a single polypeptide chain.

2. secondary
3. tertiary

what bonding properties of carbon allow for the creation of groups of atoms with distinct shapes and functions?

1.carbon containing molecules can form isomer.
2. carbon can form four covalent bonds.
3. carbon can create double and triple bonds.

rank the following polysaccharides of glucose in order od most branched form to least branches form.

1. glycogen
2. starch
3. cellulose

1. primary
2. quaternary
3. secondary

1.the linear sequence of amino acids
2. two or more interacting polypeptides
3. repetitive folding patterns such as a helix and B pleated sheet
4. the three- dimensional structure of a polypeptide

how many polypeptides are involved in the quaternary structure of a protein

at least two polypeptides

____bridges can form between the side chains of two cysteine amino acids.


what are the structural components of a polypeptide

2.peptide backbone
3. c-terminus

what is an alpha helix?

The repeating helical structure that is formed by a polypeptide backbone

carbon can form four bonds because it has only _______electrons in the outer energy____


what four bases are found in RNA?




DNA molecules contain the sugar___as part of the backbone of the molecule


what are the major classes of lipids


1 starch
2 cellulose

1. moderate branching
2. unbranched
3. highly branched

what type of bonds is responsible for the base pairing between two strands of DNA in the double helix?


the four nitrogenous bases present in DNA are__________,___________,____,and______

1. adenine
2. guanine
3. thymine
4. cytosine

which of the following describe sugar

The simplest sugar are monosaccharides
sugar contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
sugar store energy in their chemical bonds.

what are the two enantiomer of glucose

L-glucose and D-glucose

1.monounsaturated fatty acids
2. polyunsaturated fatty acids
3. saturated fatty acid

1. contain one double bonded carbon
2. liquid at room temperature
3. contain no double bonded carbons

unsaturated fat have _________melting point that saturated fats


which of the following polysaccharides contain chain of the alpha-glucose isomer?


2. waxes
3. steroid
4. phospholipids

1. energy storage
2. create a barrier to water loss
3. form hormones important in reproduction
4. plasma membrane structure

what are macromolecules

large molecules that are form by joining smaller molecules together

The ability of ____to form four covalent bonds contributes to the diversity of organic compounds that can be formed.


1. DNA
2. RNA
3. DNA
4. RNA

1. transmission of genetic information to daughter cells
2. transfer of genetic information into protein
3. store of genetic information
4. decoding genetic information

which of the following atoms form nonpolar covalent bonds with carbon


what is the difference between the N-terminus and the C-terminus of a polypeptide?

The N-terminus has a free amino group and the C-terminus has a free carboxyl group.

_____are large molecules made from smaller organic molecules.


If a protein may contain several different domains and each domain has____function


which of the following are categories of macromolecules found in cells

nucleic acids

how are nucleotides linked together to form nucleic acids

the phosphate group of one nucleotide is covalently linked to the sugar of the second nucleotide

nitrogenous bases consist of a double or single ring of __________and ______________atoms

c atoms.

how are structural isomers and stereoisomers different form one another?

only stereoisomer have identical bonding relationships but different structures
only structural isomers contain the same atoms,but with different bonding relationships.

what are two examples of important functional group in organic molecules?

amino and carbonyl

a______is a compound that lowers the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.


what is determined by the expression of genetic information?

what type of cell is formed(liver or muscle)
the identity of an organism (eg human or mouse)

what regions of a phospholipid bilayer face water and which face the interior of the membrane aways from water?

the polar regions face water, and the nonpolar regions face the interior.

the optimal distance between two atoms within a molecules is the van der waals


which of the following describes the relationship between condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis

dehydration synthesis is specific type of condensation reaction involving the loss of a water molecule.
condensation reactions and dehydration synthesis occur when two or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule.

what occurs during hydrolysis reactions?

polymers are broken down one monomer at a time by the addition of water.

what are protein-protein interactions

when one protein binds to another, this is called a protein- protein interaction

what are the major differences between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis reactions

dehydration reactions involve the loss of water and hydrolysis reactions involve the addition of water
dehydration reactions form polymers hydrolysis reactions break down polymers into monomers.

nucleotides are covalently linked by __bonds


what are the two major classes of nucleic acids?


what are the four categories of macromolecules

nucleic acids

the sugar found in ribonucleotides of RNA is____________


isomers are formed with the same atoms but with different bonding relationships


isomers have identical bonding relationships but the atoms are positioned differently around bonds

cis-trans isomers

isomers have identical bonding, but the atoms are positioned differently, resulting mirror images.


why do phospholipids arrage into bilayers

the bilayers is the most energetically favorable arrangement in aqueous solution.
the hydrophillic ends attract water while the hydrophobic ends exclude water

the building blocks of nucleic acids are monomers called


how are monomers and polymers related to one another

polymers are large macromolecules composed of many monomers linked together

_______reactions, which form polymers form simple monomers, are reversible through the process of ________________


Steroids all contain_______fused rings of carbon atoms with one or more polar __ groups attached to the ring structure


what are the major components of nitrogenous bases

single or double carbon ring

what are proteins?

proteins are polymers essential to nearly all life processes

what of the following are examples of hydrolysis reactions

A sugar is broken down into fructose and glucose molecules
A strand of DNS is broken down into individual nucleotides

two nucleotides are linked together by a ____________bond to form a string of nucleic acids


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