AP Comparative Government Iran
Providence High School
Terms in this set (59)
Literally, "sign of God." High-ranking clerics in Iran. The most senior ones - often no more than half of a dozen - are known as grand ayatollahs.
A pronouncement issued by a high-ranking Islamic cleric.
A state dominated by the clergy, who rule on the grounds that they are the only interpreters of God's will and law.
Arabic term for "assembly"; used in Iran to describe the parliament.
A committee created in the Iranian constitution to oversee the Majles (the parliament).
Persian word for the Persian language. Fars is a province in Central Iran.
A branch of Islam. It literally means the followers or partisans of Ali. The other branch is known as Sunni, or the followers of tradition.
The Muslim Bible.
Islamic law derived mostly from the Qur'an and the examples set by the Prophet Muhammad.
A forceful, extra-constitutional action resulting in the removal of an existing government.
An urban marketplace where shops, workshops, small businesses, and export-importers are located.
A term recently popularized to describe radical religious movements throughout the world.
Shia term, velayat-e-faqih. Khomeini's concept that the Iranian clergy should rule on the grounds that they are the divinely appointed guardians of both the law and the people. He developed this concept in the 1970s.
Literally "partisans of God." In Iran, the term is used to describe religious vigilantes. In Lebanon, it is used to describe the Shi'i militia.
Literally, the "proof of Islam." In Iran, it means a medium-ranking cleric.
The doctrine that government should not interfere with commerce. Relative to other advanced democracies, the US has traditionally taken a more laissez faire attitude toward economic regulation, although regulation increased in the twentieth century.
Literally "struggle." Although often used to mean armed struggle against unbelievers, it can also mean spiritual struggle for more self-improvement.
A country that obtains much of its revenue from the export of oil or other natural resources.
A society and economy that are sharply divided into a traditional, usually poorer, and a modern, usually richer, sector.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Founded in 1960 by Iran, Venezuela, and Saudi Arabia, it now includes most oil-exporting states with the notable exceptions of Mexico and former members of the Soviet Union. It tries to regulate prices by regulating production.
A committee set up in Iran to resolve differences between the Majles and the Guardian Council.
Prayer leaders in Iran's main urban mosques. Appointed by the Supreme Leader, they have considerable authority in the provinces.
Assembly of Experts
Nominates the and can replace him. The assembly is elected by the general electorate but almost all its members are clerics.
Arabic term of "expediency," "prudence," or "advisability." It is now used in Iran to refer to reasons of state or what is best for the Islamic Republic.
Belief that religion and government should be separated.
System of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster.
A branch of Islam. Means followers of tradition.
Tax-exempt, patronage system that controlled large companies that fed the pocketbooks of the shah and his supporters.
Constitution of 1979
MOST IMPORTANT DOCUMENT. Legitimizes the state, amendments of 1989. Written during the last months of Ayatollah's life. Complex mixture of theocracy and democracy, preamble reflects importance of religion, etc.
City south of Tehran. Conflicts among the clerics in the seminaries there.
Modern Iran. Began in the 16th century. 90% to Shi'ism. Tolerated Sunnis, as well as Jews, etc., Shared regard for People of the Book. Respected other religions. Serious ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS. Trade routes on Silk Road had broken up. Little contact with Atlantic. Affected ability to rule, had to rely on local rulers. Separated from society and lost power in 1722.
Turkish group. Moved the capital to Tehran. Returned Shiism as state religion. DIDN'T CLAIM TIES TO TWELVE IMAMS. Separation between government and religion widened. Power suffered due to imperialism, etc., lost oil, etc.
Constitution of 1906
Modeled after western ones with direct elections, separation of powers, law made by elected legislature, popular sovereignty, and Bill of Rights. Created Guardian Council. Only Shiites could hold cabinet positions.
Party that challenged the shah. Gained most support from working class trade unions.
Iran's prime minister. His two goals were to establish constitutional government in Iran and to free Iran from foreign interference. He trued to limit the power of the shah and to strengthen the Majles.
Import Substitution Industrialization
Encouraged domestic industries to provide products that the population needed.
Meant to counter communist or "red" influences. Focused on land reform, the government buying land form large absentee owners and selling it to small farmers at affordable prices. Encouraged farmers to become entrepreneurs with canals. Secularized Iran by extending voting rights to women, etc.
Declared by Muhammad Reza Shah that Iran is to be a one-party state in 1975.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Personified the union of political and religious interests from ancient days. Protector of the "true faith." Charisma. Defended fundamentalism, articulated resentments toward elite and the Us. Us was "Great Satan," Jurist's guardianship.
Khomeini's successor. Does not have same personality or academic credentials.
President from 1997-2005. Reformist who aimed to end freeze in relations between Iran and the West. Believed in a "dialogue among civilizations" that fostered positive relationships with other countries.
Became president in 2005. Government has newspapers, banned and censored books, and websites, not longer tolerates peaceful demonstrations.
Mir Hossein Mousavi
Opposition to Ahmadinejad in election of 2009. Received 34% of the votes.
"Equality with Difference"
Policy toward women. Meaning divorce and custody laws follow Islamic standards that favor males. Women must wear scarves and long coats in public, cannot leave country without consent of male relatives, stoning fro adultery, allowed education, and entrance to occupations.
Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran
Alliance of conservative parties. ABADGARAN. Sponsored Ahmadinejad. Officially won presidential election of 2009. Alliance was founded in 2003. Leaders live in Tehran.
Etemad-e Melli Party
Formed just after election by Karroui, finished in 3rd, serves as head of party. "Pragmatic Reformist."
Represented by the party system. The splintering of the political elites based not just on points of view but on personalities. Tend to coalesce before elections and then break apart.
Akbar Hasemi Rafsanjani
Second president of Iran after the 1979 Revolution. Tried in vain to gain a third Presidential term in 2005. Centrist, pragmatic conservative, free market; credited with much of Iran's reconstruction after the Iran-Iraq war.
Important interest group for factory workers. Operates with the help of affiliated newspaper. Has political party Islamic Labor Party. Few interest groups have formed for business since businesses have been crowded out since 1979.
Leading Islamic jurist to interpret the meaning of religious documents and sharia.
Reformists filled seats through a coalition of reformist parties. Won 80% of vote in campaign that drew 70% of electorate.
Has no sacred basis. Instead is a body of statues made by legislative bodies, passed by Males. Have no sacred meaning. Law made by People's Representatives. Cannot contradict sharia.
Established by Ayatollah Khomeini. An elite military force whose commanders are appointed by the supreme leader. Shah had built the regular army, navy, and air forces. Created as a parallel force with own budgets. Supreme leader is commander-in-chief. Protects the Republic.
A loosely-organized military that is formally part of the Revolutionary Guards, and it gained international attention in the aftermath of the disputed presidential election of 2009.
Uphold the principles of the regime as set up in 1979, with its basis in strict sharia law with a minimum of modern modifications. Wary of influence from western countries and warn that modernization may threaten the tenets of Shi'ism that provide the moral basis for society, politics, and the economy. Support the right and responsibility of clerics to run the political system. Believe that political and religious decisions should be one and the same.
Believe that the political system needs significant reform, although they disagree on exactly what the reforms should be. Less wary of western influence, and tend to advocate some degree of international involvement with countries of the West. Support Shi'ism and believe it to be an important basis of Iranian society, but they often support the idea that political leaders do not necessarily have to be clerics.
"Economics is for Donkeys"
Stated by Ayatollah Khomeini, disdaining the importance of economics for policymakers and affirming the superiority of religious, rather than secular leaders.
Revolution of Rising Expectations
Revolutions are most likely to occur when people are doing better than they once were, but some type of setback happens.
Quasi-private foundations and religious endowments that are charged with aiding the poor by managing many state-owned enterprises.