5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Melting or denaturing
- 5' refers to
- a Replication is bidirectional -> Replication begins at specific starting point -> Proceeds in opposite directions -> Allows replication to proceed more quickly
- b 5'PO4. 1 strand of the DNA has a phosphate attached at the number 5 carbon of the sugar. -> Termed the five prime (5') end
- c 1) Control mechanism that inhibits gene expression and decreases the synthesis of enzymes 2) Repression is usually in response to the overabundance of an end product 2.1) Repression decreases the rate synthesis of enzymes leading to the formation of the particular end product 2.2) Regulatory proteins called repressors mediate repression -> Repressors block the ability of RNA polymerase to bind and initiate protein synthesis
- d Is when you separate the 2 strands of a DNA
- e Sequence of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a particular codon in mRNA. The anticodon allows the tRNA to recognize and bind to the appropriate codon.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Includes 1) Phosphate group 2) 5 carbon sugar -> Deoxyribose 3) Nucleotides bond covalently between the 5'PO4 of one nucleotide and the 3'OH of another -> Joining of nucleotides creates an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone
- Grouping of a stretch of nucleotides into sequential triplets; an mRNA molecule has 3 reading frames, but only 1 is typically used in translation.
- 1) RNA is made up of nucleotides -> Ribonucleotides 2) RNA contains nitrogenous bases -> Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil (Uracil replaces thymine in RNA) 3) RNA usually exists as single stranded molecule 4) Portion of DNA acts of template for RNA synthesis -> Either strand of DNA can act as template 5) Three different functional groups of RNA mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
- 1) Control mechanism that turns on the transcription of a gene or set of genes 2) Inducers are substances that act to induce transcription -> Enzymes synthesized in the presence of inducers are called inducible enzymes
- Mechanisms to enhance survivability 1) Antigenic variation 2)
5 True/False questions
Stop codon → Codon at which translation is initiated; it is typically the first AUG after a ribosome-binding site.
Codon → Sequence of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a particular codon in mRNA. The anticodon allows the tRNA to recognize and bind to the appropriate codon.
genome → 1) Complete set of genetic information referred 2) Genome of all cells is composed of DNA ->Some viruses have RNA genome 2) Functional unit of genome is the gene 3) Gene codes for gene product -> Gene product is most commonly protein
rRNA → Messenger RNA -> type of RNA molecule that is translated during protein synthesis.
Gene Expression → 1) Involves two separate but interrelated process, transcription and translation 2) RNA polymerase binds to a region of the DNA called the promoter 2.1) Only one strand of DNA acts as a template 2.1.1) This is called the sense strand 2.1.2) The strand not transcribed is the nonsense strand 3) Nucleotides in RNA are the same as those in DNA with one exception 3.1) Thymine is replaced with uracil 3.1.1) Binding in RNA is A:U or U:A and C:G or G:C 4) RNA polymerase continues down strand of DNA until it reaches a site on DNA called the terminator -> At the terminator RNA polymerase and the new strand of mRNA are released from strand of DNA 5)