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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. 5' refers to
  2. Constitutive enzymes
  3. Phase variation
  4. Codon
  5. Inducible enzymes
  1. a Routine switching on and off of certain genes -> Altering expression allows portions of population to survive and multiply
  2. b Inducible enzymes -> Not regularly produced -> turned on in certain conditions -> Β-galactosidase
  3. c Constantly synthesized -> Enzymes of glycolysis
  4. d 5'PO4. 1 strand of the DNA has a phosphate attached at the number 5 carbon of the sugar. -> Termed the five prime (5') end
  5. e 1) Codons are groups of three nucleotides situated next to each other on DNA 2) Codons are written in terms of their base sequence in mRNA 3) The sequence of codons determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein 4) There are 64 codons that make up the "alphabet" of proteins 4.1) Of the 64 codons, 61 are sense codons -> Each coding a specific amino acid 4.2) The remaining 3 are nonsense codons -> These code for termination of the message 5) Codons contained in mRNA are read into proteins through translation -> The site of translation is the ribosome 6) Each codon has an anticodon -> The anticodon is complementary sequence to the codon

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. T -> A:T. A is bound to T by two hydrogen bonds
  2. Is a fragment of RNA. Numerous transcripts can be produced from one chromosome
  3. 1) Involves two separate but interrelated process, transcription and translation 2) RNA polymerase binds to a region of the DNA called the promoter 2.1) Only one strand of DNA acts as a template 2.1.1) This is called the sense strand 2.1.2) The strand not transcribed is the nonsense strand 3) Nucleotides in RNA are the same as those in DNA with one exception 3.1) Thymine is replaced with uracil 3.1.1) Binding in RNA is A:U or U:A and C:G or G:C 4) RNA polymerase continues down strand of DNA until it reaches a site on DNA called the terminator -> At the terminator RNA polymerase and the new strand of mRNA are released from strand of DNA 5)
  4. Guanine
  5. Transfer RNA -> type of RNA molecule that acts as a key, interpreting the genetic code; each tRNA molecule carries a specific amino acid. tRNA recognizes specific sequences of mRNA and transports the required amino acids to form a polypeptide chain

5 True/False questions

  1. AnticodonSequence of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a particular codon in mRNA. The anticodon allows the tRNA to recognize and bind to the appropriate codon.


  2. mRNARibosomal RNA -> type of RNA molecule present in ribosomes. rRNA builds the ribosomes


  3. Repressors1) Control mechanism that turns on the transcription of a gene or set of genes 2) Inducers are substances that act to induce transcription -> Enzymes synthesized in the presence of inducers are called inducible enzymes


  4. rRNARibosomal RNA -> type of RNA molecule present in ribosomes. rRNA builds the ribosomes


  5. Mechanisms controlling transcriptionProcess of synthesizing RNA from DNA template 1) mRNA carries the coded information from DNA to the ribosome, which is the site of protein synthesis 2) mRNA also plays an important role in translation 3) During transcription the enzyme, RNA polymerase, synthesizes a complementary strand of mRNA from a portion of unwound DNA