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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. rRNA
  2. Regulating the expression of genes
  3. Phase variation
  4. Reading frame
  5. Melting or denaturing
  1. a 1) Nucleotide sequence codes for regulation mechanism for gene expression 2) Mechanisms determine duration of synthesis of gene products -> Products are only made when required 3) Key mechanism is regulation of mRNA synthesis from DNA -> Regulation of transcription
  2. b Routine switching on and off of certain genes -> Altering expression allows portions of population to survive and multiply
  3. c Is when you separate the 2 strands of a DNA
  4. d Ribosomal RNA -> type of RNA molecule present in ribosomes. rRNA builds the ribosomes
  5. e Grouping of a stretch of nucleotides into sequential triplets; an mRNA molecule has 3 reading frames, but only 1 is typically used in translation.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. 1) DNA replication 2) DNA expression (gene expression)
  2. DNA molecule is antiparallel -> Strands are oriented in opposite directions, strands differ at the ends 1) One strand oriented in the 5' to 3' direction. 2) The other strand is oriented in the 3' to 5' direction.
  3. Includes 1) Phosphate group 2) 5 carbon sugar -> Deoxyribose 3) Nucleotides bond covalently between the 5'PO4 of one nucleotide and the 3'OH of another -> Joining of nucleotides creates an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone
  4. 5'PO4. 1 strand of the DNA has a phosphate attached at the number 5 carbon of the sugar. -> Termed the five prime (5') end
  5. Messenger RNA -> type of RNA molecule that is translated during protein synthesis.

5 True/False questions

  1. Antigenic variationAlteration in characteristics of certain surface proteins -> Example: Neisseria gonorrhoeae hides from host immunity by changing numerous surface proteins


  2. (C)Thymine


  3. CodonSequence of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a particular codon in mRNA. The anticodon allows the tRNA to recognize and bind to the appropriate codon.


  4. Start codonCodon that terminates translation, signaling the end of the protein; there are 3 stop codons


  5. TranscriptionProcess of synthesizing RNA from DNA template 1) mRNA carries the coded information from DNA to the ribosome, which is the site of protein synthesis 2) mRNA also plays an important role in translation 3) During transcription the enzyme, RNA polymerase, synthesizes a complementary strand of mRNA from a portion of unwound DNA