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CJ 270 Exam 2
Terms in this set (24)
What is the halting or suspension, before conviction of formal criminal proceedings, against a person, conditioned on some form of counter performance by the defendant.?
What is counter performance?
the defendant's participation in exchange for diversion, in a treatment, counseling, or educational program aimed at changing his or her behavior.
What is the conditional release of a convicted offender into the community, under the supervision of a probation officer.
What happens if an offender violates probation?
If an offender violates probation they go to a revocation hearing.
What is a revocation hearing?
a due process hearing that must be conducted to determine whether the conditions of probation have been violated before probation can be revoked and the offender removed from the community
What is revocation (regarding probation)?
the formal termination of an offender's conditional freedom
Discuss John Augustus:
-He lived in Boston and worked as a shoemaker.
-He became interested in the operation of the courts/probation in 1841, he was 57 years old.
-known as "the Father of Probation"
-He was sensitive to offenders charged under Boston's vice or temperance laws
-He was a member of Washington's total abstinence society
-He was the 1st probation officer/unpaid volunteer. He would post bail for substance abuse offenders so they could be released to his custody. He would supervise them for around 30 days and help them with housing, education and employment.
-Over the course of his career he helped about 2000 adults and several thousand children.
-He died in 1859
-His work still influences probation today
-His work helped the first probation statute pass in Suffolk County. The statute required the Mayor of Boston to appoint a PO (first paid PO) to work with offenders and report to the police chief.
What are 4 rationales for diversion?
1. The experience and stigma of being formally arrested, tried and convicted actually encourages more criminal behavior
2. Saves tax payers money; cheaper than formally processing an offender in the system
3. offenders of victimless crimes are better off getting treatment or therapy than getting processed through the system
4. Saves offenders from being permanently stained with a felony on their record.
What are intermediate sanctions?
New punishment options developed to fill the gap between traditional probation and traditional jail or prison sentences and to better match the severity of punishment to the seriousness of the crime.
What do intermediate sanctions do for low level offenders?
Intermediate sanctions keep low level offenders out of jail.
How do intermediate sanctions affect tax payers?
Intermediate sanctions help save tax payers money by not processing as many offenders through the criminal justice system.
What is Intensive Supervision Probation?
control of offenders in the community under the strict conditions by means of frequent reporting to a probation officer who's case load is generally limited to 30 offenders
What is drug court?
a special court that is given the responsibility to treat, sanction, and reward drug offenders with punishment more restrictive than regular probation, but less severe than incarceration
What is a fine?
A financial penalty used as a criminal sanction
What is a day fine?
a financial penalty scaled both to the defendants ability to pay and the seriousness of the crime.
What is community service?
a sentence to serve a specified number of hours working in unpaid positions with non-profit or tax supported agencies.
what is a day reporting center?
a community correctional center to which an offender reports everyday or several days a week for supervision and treatment
What is remote-location monitoring?
technologies, including GPS, and electronic monitoring that probation and parole officers use to monitor remotely the physical location of an offender
what is a residential reentry center?
a medium-security correctional setting that resident offenders are permitted to leave regularly--unaccompanied by staff--for work, education, or vocational programs or treatment in the community but require them to return to a locked facility each evening.
What is boot camp?
a short institutional term of confinement that includes a physical regimen designed to develop self-discipline, respect for authority, responsibility and a sense of accomplishment
What are community corrections?
a philosophy of correctional treatment that embraces 1) decentralization of authority 2) citizen participation 3) redefinition of the population of offenders for whom incarceration 4)emphasis on rehabilitation through community programs.
What are community corrections acts?
state laws that give economic grants to local communities correction goals, and to develop and operate community correction programs
Describe and give background about Community Corrections Acts
-The state benefits by avoiding costs of incarcerations
-Minnesota was the first to enact a community corrections act in 1973; they have one of the lowest incarceration rates in the country
-The Pew Center is a big supporter of CCA's; they believe CCA's should be punishments for low risk offenders
-Framework: 1) Sort offenders by risk to public safety 2) base intervention programs on science 3) harness technology 4) impose swift and certain sanctions for violations 5) create incentives for success 6) measure progress
As of January 1, 2012 how many adults were on probation in the United States?
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