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Sociology Exam 1
Terms in this set (75)
stresses the social context in which people live; "what influences people and their reaction to change".
first person to use "sociology" as its own term; suggested using sociology with the scientific method, testing, etc.
One of the Founding Father's of Sociology, whom believed that it was class conflict that influenced people.
One of the Founding Father's of Sociology, whom had 3 goals.
1. get sociology recognized
2. understand what sociology is
3. study sociology and actually apply it
One of the Founding Father's of Sociology, whom believed religion is what strongly influenced people.
Where and When was the first sociology department in the United States?
University of Chicago in 1892
The general statement how some parts of the world fit together and how they work.
A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that once fulfilled, contribute's to societies equilibrium
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources.
What trends are shaping future sociology?
Social Reform and Globalization
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that characterize a group and are passed through generations.
Objects that distinguish people, such as art, buildings, weapons, clothing, hairstyles, etc.
A group's way of thinking and their patterns of behavior.
The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another.
A system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects, but also thoughts.
The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, superior or inferior, good or bad, etc.
What we are raised to know.
Expectation's of "right" behavior
Either expressions of approval or disapproval depending on what they do "right" or "wrong".
Define Subculture with an example
The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its member from the larger culture; "a world within a world".
Example: people with tattoos
Define Counterculture with an example
A group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the boarder culture.
Define Cultural Universals
A value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group.
Example: Groups not agreeing with incest.
Explain the concept that society makes us human.
Society makes us human because with there being so many different values and people, not one person is always right. If we make mistakes, that makes us human.
Charles Horton Cooley
He believed that people form who they are through interaction with others, or the "looking-glass self". (3 Steps)
1. Imagining how we look to others
2. liking or hating ourselves based on positive and negative reactions
3. misjudging peoples reactions makes us develops a self image
He developed Cognitive Development.
George Herbert Mead
He developed the concept of play to the interaction theory. With play comes a better understanding of emotions.
He concluded that people go through stages of morality. (4)
1. Amoral Stage (infants)
2. Preconventional Stage(7-10) "avoid punishment"
3. Conventional Stage- "understands rules"
4. Post Conventional Stage- "right vs wrong"
She had a theory that women cared more about emotions than men, but theory was later dropped because of additional research.
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensory Motor Stage (birth-2) "understanding senses"
2. Preoperational Stage (2-7) "using language/symbols"
3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-12) "developing reasoning"
4. Formal Operational Stage (after 12) "talking about concepts, conclusions, and solving abstract problems".
Part of Freud's Theory, type of a person that believes everything is fun, wants to satisfy needs, seeking pleasure.
Part of Freud's Theory, type of person that has a balance of wanting to satisfy their needs but also feels shame when they do something wrong.
Part of Freud's Theory, type of person that can be either very shameful or very prideful.
Know and explain the agents of socialization.
1. Parents- "tend to give hints at children regarding gender roles"
2. Neighborhood- "easier to parent in good places vs ghetto"
3. Religion- "promotes sense of morality/ manners/ ways of life"
4. Day Care- "children who spend more time at day care have weaker bonds with their mothers"
5. Schools- "helps children learn skills, values, and the hidden cirriculum"
6. Sports- "helps create team work"
7. Workplace- "working into the role someone has at the work place"
8. Peer Groups- "whatever peers you go around you more than likely become"
Process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.
Know the stages of socialization throughout the life course. (5)
1. Childhood (0-12) "mini adults"
2. Adolescence (12-17) "teenage years"
3. Transitional Adulthood (18-29) "adult responsibilities"
4. Middle Years (30-65)
*Early (30-49) "life changing"
*Later (50-65) "evaluating the past"
5. Older Years (65 and up)
* Transitional Older (65-74)
* Later Older (75 and up) "coming to an end"
The analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of sociology, typically used by functionalist and conflict theorist.
The analysis of social life that focuses on social interactions, used by symbolic interactionalist
Know the 3 components of social structure (Macro View).
1. Culture- particular groups vaues, beliefs, norms, materialistic things=>determines future self
2. Social Class- income, education, power=> determines where someone falls
3. Social Status- position that someone has (2 types)
* Ascribed- born into
Define Social Institutions
The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets basic needs.
How do functionalists and conflict theorist see it differently?
Functionalist have 5 key factors
1. replacing members
2. socializing new members
3. producing and distributing goods and services
4. preserving order
5. providing a sense of purpose
Conflict- do not see social institutions working for the greater good
What holds society together?
1. Durkheim's Theory
2. Tonnies Theory
1. the key is social cohesion
2. the key is having a intimate community
Explain social interaction according to the Micro View
1. Stereotypes- first impressions
2. Personal Space- physical space we claim as our own
3. Touching- meaning and amount of touching varies between people
Explain Dramaturgy (3 Types)
*Name that's given by social life being given by a drama.
1) Social Setting=>action takes place; Furniture, atmosphere, etc
2) Appearance=>how someone looks; Props
3) Manner=>attitudes demonstrated as someone plays their roles
Define Role Performance.
Emphasis on the "role" or someones "style"
Define Impression Management.
Someone trying to control how others see themselves
Objects that are symbolic to someone.
People that are together in the same space temporarily, with no connection
Collection of people with similar characteristics
People that interact and take each other into account
Group that cooperates and is intimate
Group that is shorter in time together but are larger
A group that has loyalty
A group that there is discrimination
A group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves
The social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
A formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor
What are Weber's 5 essential characteristics?
1. Separate levels, with assignments flowing downward and accountability flowing upward
2. Division of Labor
3. Written Rules
4. Written Communication and Records
5. Impersonality and Replaceability
An organization replacing old goals with new ones
1. Red Tape
2. Lack of Communication between Units
1. Rules bound by an organization
2. Can cause arguments
3. Lack of connection between people
Define Corporate Culture, include Self-fulfilling stereotypes
The set traditions, values, that are unwritten norms in the workplace. People tend to mold people into what they want being part of the company.
Explain Group Dynamics
The ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence each other
One of the first to study group size
The smallest possible group (2 people); fragile
A group of three people; strong
What allows groups to survive over time?
Having more numbers of people
Instrumental Group Leaders
An individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals
Expressive Group Leaders
An individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in the group
Authoritarian Leadership Style
An individual who leads by giving orders
Democratic Leadership Style
An individual who leads by trying to reach a census
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
An individual who leads by being highly permissive
Performed experiment whether or not individuals would continue with something, even if unethical, being told to continue
Sociologist that came up with the groupthink concept
Define and Explain the process of Group Think
Narrowing the groups thought to only one answer
When members of an organization is promoted for good until reaching a state where they no longer can perform
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