Science chapter 2
Terms in this set (30)
Substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all its essential processes.
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.
Nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that is a major source of energy.
A sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells.
Energy-containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
Nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are needed for tissue growth and repair and play a part in chemical reactions within cells.
Small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules.
Molecules that act as helpers in a variety of chemical reactions within the body.
Nutrients that are needed by the body in small amounts and are not made by living things.
Food Guide Pyramid
A diagram that classifies foods into six groups to help people plan a healthy diet.
Percent Daily Value
A value that shows how the nutritional content of one serving of food fits into the diet of a person who consumes 2,000 calories a day.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Guidelines that show the amounts of nutrients needed everyday.
The process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules.
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood.
The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion.
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
A thick, slippery substance produced by the body.
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
A J-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen.
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place.
The largest organ in the body; it plays a role in many body processes.
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver.
A triangular organ that lies between the stomach and first part of the small intestine.
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed.
The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed into the bloodstream and the remaining material is eliminated from the body.
The end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated.
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body.