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200 terms

Astronomy Final Exam

Focuses on The Cosmic Perspective for an AST 1002 college course. Questions stem from previous coursework and tests. Repeat questions exist for the final.
STUDY
PLAY
Our solar system is located in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.
False.
Longitude measures angular distance north or south of Earth's equator.
False, Latitude.
The observable universe is the same size today as it was a few billion years ago.
False.
Earth is always precisely 1 AU away from the Sun.
False.
The night sky changes with longitude.
False.
Doubling the distance between two objects halves the gravitational force between them.
False, 1/4.
The names of the seven days of the week are derived from the names of the members of the solar system that are visible to the naked eye.
True.
Astronomy and astrology were often practiced together in ancient cultures, and astrology played an important role in the historical development of astronomy.
True.
Copernicus's model of the solar system gave much better predictions than the model of Ptolemy.
False.
The heliocentric model of the universe holds that the Earth is the center of the universe.
False.
According to Newton and classical physics, the force of gravity varies with:
The product of the two masses, and the inverse square of the distance separating the two bodies.
The energy attributes to an object by virtue of its position is known as:
Potential Energy.
What is meant by a "continuously habitable zone"?
The region around each star where Earth-like planets could have liquid water on their surfaces.
What is nuclear fusion?
The process of combining lightweight nuclei to make a heavier nucleus.
Earth is made mostly of metals and rocks. Where did this material come from?
It was produced by nuclear fusion in the stars and supernova explosions.
What is a statement that would inappropriately use the term light-year?
It will take me light-years to complete this homework assignment.
Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion were derived with the very accurate observations of his mentor:
Tycho Brahe.
What is NOT a telescopic discovery of Galileo?
The moons of Mars.
If an object's velocity is halved, its momentum is:
also halved.
During the Dark Ages in Europe, the scientific work of ancient Greeks was preserved and further developed primarily by scholars in:
Baghdad.
Into how many constellations is the celestial sphere divided?
88.
He discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses:
Johannes Kepler.
He discovered the four major moons of Jupiter:
Galileo.
According to the universal law of gravitation, if you triple the distance between two objects, then the gravitation force between them:
Decreases by a factor of 9.
The Prime Meridian passes through:
Greenwich, United Kingdom.
What are constellations?
Groups of stars making an apparent pattern in the celestial sphere.
How many arcseconds are in 0.5°?
1,800.
If it is midnight in New York, it is:
daytime in Sydney, Australia.
In the system introduced by Johann Bayer, the third brightest star in a constellation is:
Gamma Star.
Density is defined as:
Mass per unit volume.
The ancient goal of astronomy was to:
Predict human events.
When we look at an object 1,000 light-years away, we see it:
as it was 1,000 years ago.
From Kepler's third law (p sqaured = p cubed), a hypothetical planet that is twice as far from the Sun as Earth should have a period of:
More than two Earth years.
When did Copernicus live?
About 500 years ago.
The point directly over your head is called:
The zenith.
If we have a full moon today, when will we have the next full moon?
In about a month.
We describe a location on Earth's surface by stating its:
Longitude and latitude.
The path led to modern science emerged from ancient civilizations in which part of the world?
The Mediterranean and the Middle East.
A star much cooler than the sun would appear:
Red.
Traveling half the speed of light, how long would it take for a particle to go from the Sun to the Earth?
About 16 minutes.
When viewed from Earth, what never goes in retrograde motion?
Sun.
The ancient Greek astronomer who wrote the great compendium of astronomical data became known as The Almagest was:
Ptolemy.
From the fact that virtually every galaxy is moving away from us and more distant galaxies are moving away from us at a faster rate than closer ones, scientists conclude that:
The universe is expanding.
Our solar system consists of:
The sun and all the object that orbit it.
An astronomical unit (AU) is:
The average distance between the Sun and the Earth.
By studying distant galaxies in the 1920s, Hubble made the following important discovery that led us to conclude that the universe is expanding:
All galaxies outside of the Local Group are moving away from us, and the farther away they are, the faster they're going.
Based on observations of the universal expansion, the age of the universe is about:
14 billion years.
The ancient Greek who supported heliocentric cosmology was:
Aristarchus of Samos.
What is the ecliptic plane?
The plane of Earth's orbit of the Sun.
The constellation Orion is visible to observers in Florida on winter evenings but not summer evenings because of:
The location of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun.
The energy attributed to an object by virtue of its position is known as:
Potential Energy.
According to Newton and classical physics, the force of gravity varies with the:
The product of two masses, and the inverse square of the distance separating the two bodies.
The following moons: Miranda, Ariel, and Titania belong to the planet:
Uranus.
The relationship that the total energy radiated by a black body depends on the fourth power of its temperature is attributed to:
Stefan.
The second largest moon in the solar system is:
Titan.
What is NOT an achievement of Sir Isaac Newton?
The refracting telescope.
If a wave's frequency doubles. How does the wavelength change?
It is halved.
Which planet shows the widest range of surface temperatures between day and night?
Mercury.
Compared with ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation has a greater:
Wavelength.
What is emitted when an orbital electron falls from a higher energy orbit to a lower energy orbit?
A photon.
What is the Sun mainly made of?
Hydrogen and helium.
What spacecraft provides high-resolution X-ray images from space?
Chandra Observatory.
The physical phenomenon, involving spectral line shifts, that astronomer use to find the radial velocity of a source is called the:
Doppler effect.
What is the order of the four Galilean moons, going out from Jupiter?
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
Which planet by itself contains the majority of mass of all the planets?
Jupiter.
Absolute zero is:
0 kelvin.
The Jovian planets:
All have rings around their equators.
Density is defined as:
Mass per unit volume.
The main constituent of the Martian atmosphere is:
Carbon Dioxide.
If an object's velocity is halved, its momentum is:
Halved.
The planet associated with the God of Love in Greco-Roman mythology is:
Venus.
Valles marineris is a:
Large canyon on Mars.
An atom of the element iron (Fe) has an atomic number of 26 and an atomic mass number of 56. If it is neutral, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons does it have?
26 protons, 30 neutrons, 26 electrons.
What mechanism is most responsible for generating the internal heat of Io that drives the moon's volcanic activity?
Tidal heating.
What wavelength regions cannot studied with telescopes located on Earth's surface?
Gamma rays and x-rays.
From the longest to shortest wavelength, what is correct order of the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?
Radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays.
When viewed from Earth's surface, the stars in our night sky twinkle in brightness and color because of:
Turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere.
Which scientist was the first to postulate the nebular hypothesis?
Kant.
What are the main constituents of the Jovian planets?
Hydrogen and helium.
What is NOT a characteristic of the inner (terrestrial) planets?
They all have substantial, deep atmosphere.
Asteroid, meteoroids, and comets are remnants of the early solar system.
True.
NASA's Spritzer Space Telescope operates in the x-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
False.
If Pluto were as large as the planet Mercury, astronomers would classify it as a terrestrial planet.
False.
Despite their great masses, all four of the Jovian worlds in our solar system are less dense than the Earth.
True.
On average, Venus has the hottest surface temperature of any planet in the solar system - even hotter than Mercury.
True.
Moons cannot have atmospheres, active volcanoes, or liquid water.
False.
Saturn is not the only Jovian planet in the solar system with rings.
True.
Without the greenhouse gases, Earth's surface would be frozen over.
True.
Galileo was the first person to use the refracting telescope in astronomy.
True.
Storms in the Jovian planets' atmospheres are generally much longer lived than storms in the atmosphere on Earth.
True.
Newton's first law says that every force is balanced by an equal but opposite reaction force.
False.
If a fire truck's siren is rising in pitch, it must be approaching us.
True.
The larger the red shift, the faster the distant galaxy is rushing toward is.
False.
A blue star is hotter than a red star.
True.
Scientists currently think that Io may have liquid water below its surface.
False, Europa.
Doubling the distance between objects halves the gravitational force between them.
False, 1/4.
The shorter a photon's wavelength, the greater its energy.
True.
Different isotopes of a chemical element always have the same number of protons.
True.
Titan's surface is obscured by thick cloud layers.
True.
Newton invented the refracting telescope.
False.
The nucleus of a comet is typically:
A few kilometers in size and consisting of a mixture of rock and ice.
On a main sequence, stars obtain their energy:
By converting hydrogen to helium.
The largest Asteroid, which is now designated as a dwarf planet, is called:
Ceres.
How does the sun generate energy today?
By fusion.
Which planet shows the widest range of surface temperatures between day and night?
Mercury.
What is the order of the four Galilean moons, going out from Jupiter?
Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
What is emitted when an orbital electron falls from a higher energy orbit to a lower energy orbit?
A photon.
On the H-R diagram, the white dwarfs like Sirius B and Procyon B lie:
At the bottom left below the right main sequence.
On the H-R diagram, red supergiants like Betelguese lie:
At the top right above the main sequence.
The largest moon in the solar system, bigger but not as massive as Mercury is:
Ganymede.
The temperature of the Sun's core is about:
15 million K.
Sun's luminosity is the:
Total amount of light that the Sun radiates away each second.
Which of the terrestrial worlds has the strongest magnetic field?
Earth.
Which planet is named after the Goddess of love in Greco-Roman mythology?
Venus.
Which planet has the highest density?
Earth.
The most likely theory of the formation of the Moon is that it:
Formed from a collision of Earth with a Mars sized object.
Valles marineris is a:
Large canyon on Mars.
The stellar spectral sequence in order of decreasing temperature is:
OBAFGKM.
The tail of a comet always points:
Away from the sun and becomes longest and brightest at perihelion.
Which star is the most massive?
A main sequence B star.
For the Sun, the time between successive sunspot maxima is about:
A decade.
What is a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem?
The electron neutrinos created in the Sun change into another type of neutrino that scientists had difficulty detecting.
On the H-R diagram, the bright blue, main-sequence stars that dominated the naked-eyed sky lie:
At the top left.
Which luminosity class refers to the main sequence?
V.
The overall result of the proton-proton chain in sun-like stars is:
4 H -> 1 He + energy
What are the main constituents of Jovian planets?
Hydrogen and helium.
The most volcanically active world in the solar system is:
Io.
In Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere, the only persistent feature is:
The Great Red Spot.
What mechanism is most responsible for generating the internal heat of Io that drives the moon's volcanic activity?
Tidal Heating.
Density is defined as:
Mass per unit volume.
A yellow star, like the Sun, is hotter than an orange star.
True.
According to the extraterrestrial catastrophe theory, currently endorsed by many astronomers, the demise of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago was most likely caused by a large asteroid impacting Earth near the Yucatan peninsula area.
True.
Despite their great masses, all four of the Jovian worlds in our solar system are less dense than Earth.
True.
Sunspots are cooler than the surrounding region of the Sun's surface.
True.
On average, Mercury has the hottest surface temperature of any planet in the solar system - even hotter than Venus.
False.
Humans' parent star, the Sun, has a G5 V spectral classification.
False, G2V.
Stars only spend about 10% of their lifetime on the main sequence.
False.
Brown dwarfs are failed stars - that is they do not contain enough mass to achieve sustained thermonuclear fusion in their cores.
True.
Asteroids are made of essentially the same materials as the Jovian planets.
False.
Stars with high masses live longer than stars with lower masses.
False.
Storms in the Jovian planets' atmosphere generally generally are much longer lived than storms in the atmosphere on Earth.
True.
Nuclear fusion in the Sun's core releases energy because the total mass of the nuclei involved increases.
False.
Titan's surface is obscured in thick cloud layers.
True.
A yellow star, like the Sun, is hotter than the a blue star.
False.
The most massive stars generate energy at the end of their lives by iron into their cores.
False.
The methane in Neptune's upper atmosphere preferentially absorbs red wavelength sunlight, causing the planet to appear blue.
True.
The longer a photon's wavelength, the greater the energy.
False.
Gravitational equilibrium means the surface and the core of the Sun are at the same pressure.
False.
Scientists currently think that Io may have liquid water below its frozen surfaces.
False, Europa.
The Stefan Boltzmann law states that the total energy radiated by a black body is proportional to the square of its temperature in kelvins.
False, the 4th power.
Which star would be the coolest?
M1.
Which scientists performed the hallmark (famous initial) experiment in astrobiology?
Miller and Urey.
Which star is the most massive?
A main sequence B star.
On the H-R diagram, the bright blue stars that dominate the naked-eye sky lie:
At the top left.
On the H-R diagram, white dwarfs like Sirius B and Procyon B lie:
At the top lower left below the main sequence.
Fossil records of early life forms of Earth suggest that life began about:
3.5 billion years ago.
How does the Sun generate energy?
Fusion.
What is a planetary nebula?
The expanding shell of gas that is no longer gravitationally held to the remnant of a low-mass star.
What explanation does Einstein's general relativity provide for gravity?
Gravity is the result of curved spacetime.
What happens to the core of a low mass star after a planetary nebula occurs?
It becomes a white dwarf.
Which scientist was not directly associated with the development of the concept of the black hole?
Hubble.
What is the sun mainly made of?
Hydrogen and helium.
The stars with masses comparable to our Sun's size, but sizes like that of Earth are:
White dwarfs.
On the H-R diagram, our sun lies:
About in the middle.
For the Sun, the time between successive sunspot maxima is about:
A decade.
On the H-R diagram, red supergiants like Betelgeuse lie:
At the top right.
The Drake Equation is attempting to find the number of:
The number of communicative intelligent alien civilizations in the Galaxy at a given moment.
A neutron star is about the same size as:
The Earth.
What types of Stars end their lives as Type II supernovas?
Stars that are at least several times the mass of the Sun.
A white dwarf is supported against further gravitational collapse by the pressure of tightly packed:
Electrons.
What is the possible solution to the solar neutrino problem?
The electron neutrinos created in the Sun change into another type of neutrino that scientists have trouble detecting.
A star's luminosity is:
Total amount of light that the star generates away each second.
The stellar spectral sequence in order of decreasing temperature is:
OBAFGKM.
What is meant by a "continuously habitable zone"?
The region around each star where Earth-like planets could have liquid water on their surfaces.
After a Type II supernova event, what is left behind?
Either a neutron star or a black hole.
On the main sequence, stars obtain their energy:
By converting hydrogen to helium.
A brown dwarf is:
An object not quite massive enough to become a star.
Which scientist gets credit for being the first to classify hypothetical alien civilizations on the basis of their control of energy:
Kardashev.
Which star is the most common type of main-sequence star?
An M star.
Which luminosity class refers to supergiants?
I
Human's parent star, the Sun, has a G5 II spectral classification.
False, G2V.
Nuclear fission in the Sun's core releases energy because of the total mass of the nuclei involved decreases.
False.
The shorter a photon's wavelength, the greater its energy.
True.
The Stefan Boltzmann law states that the total energy radiated by a black body is proportional to the square of its temperature in kelvins.
False.
A neutron star is a ball of neutrons created by the collapse of the iron core in a massive star undergoing a (Type II) supernova explosion.
True.
If you could somehow return to our solar system 10 billion years from now, you would most likely find a neutron star.
False, white dwarf.
The most massive stars generate energy at the end of their lives by fusing iron in their cores.
False.
The event horizon marks the boundary between our observable universe and the inside of a black hole.
True.
In the late 1990s, scientists used very distant Type II supernovas to detect accelerated rate of expansion of the universe.
False.
The Sagan-Drake Paradox asks the question "Where are they?"
False, Fermi's Paradox.
The Swiss physicist Fritz Zwicky was the first person to postulate the idea of a neutron star.
True.
A yellow star, like the Sun, is hotter than an orange star.
True.
Visible light cannot escape from within a black hole; neither can high-energy electromagnetic radiation, like gamma rays.
True.
Stars with high masses live longer than stars with lower masses.
False, short-lived.
Brown dwarfs are failed stars - that is they do not contain enough mass to achieve sustained thermonuclear fusion in their cores.
True.
A neutron star is the core remnant left behind from a Type Ia (carbon detonation) supernova.
False.
Stars spend only about 10% of their lifetime on the main sequence.
False, 90%.
Our Sun will end its life in a Type II supernova and become a neutron star.
False.
Sunspots are cooler than the surrounding region of the Sun's surface.
True.
Albert Einstein coined the term "black hole".
False.