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31 terms

PS 100 Chapter 1

STUDY
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authority
an accepted source of expert information or advice
intuition
the act or faculty of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes; it involves immediate cognition
reason
the capacity for logical, rational, and analytic thought- intelligence
sensory data
knowledge obtained through the senses
hypothesis
a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem, that can be tested by further investigation
theory
a set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena
law
a well-tested theory, so firm as to be unquestioned by science
model
a schematic description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and may be used for further study of its characteristics
existence
a fact or state of having actual or real being
causality
cause must always precede the effect
position symmetry
the laws of the universe are not different at different locations
time symmetry
the laws of the universe do not change with time
principle of noncontradition
of two contradictory propositions, both cannot be true
Occam's Razor
simpler explanations are more likely to be true than complex ones
interactions
any of the four fundamental ways in which elementary particles and bodies can influence each other
force
a push or pull on an object
strong nuclear interaction
the interaction between nucleons that gives rise to the strong force
electromagnetic interaction
the interaction between charged objects that gives rise to the electromagnetic force
weak nuclear interaction
the interaction between nucleons that gives rise to the weak force
gravity
the interaction between anything with mass that gives rise to the gravitational force
atomic nuclei
the positively charged central region of an atom composed of protons and neutrons
proton
a composite, strongly interacting particle made up of three quarks; protons carry a positive electrical charge and is a constituent part of the nucleus of atoms
neutron
a composite, strongly-interacting particle made up of three quarks, but which carries no net electrical charge; neutrons area constituent part of the nucleus of the atom
nucleon
a generic name for either a proton or neutron
quark
the elementary particles of which protons and neutrons consist; a proton and neutron each consist of three quarks
radioactive
a term referring to atoms whose nuclei can spontaneously change under the influence of the weak nuclear force
electron
an elementary particle in atoms having a negative charge; electrons are located outside atomic nuclei
element
a substance composed of atoms that have an identical number of protons in each nucleus; elements cannot be reduced to simpler substances by normal chemical means
atom
the fundamental unit of an element
molecule
the microscopic structure usually made up of more than one atom
solar system
the sun and all planets, comets, asteroids, and other bodies that orbit about it under the pull of gravity