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37 terms

Chapter 4: Microscopy, Staining, and Classification

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Binomial nomenclature
the classification method used in the Linnaean system of taxonomy, which assigns each species both a genus name and a specific epithet
Heat fixation
a technique that uses the heat from a flame to attach a smear to a slide
Phylum
Taxonomical grouping of similar classes of organisms
Acid fast stain
a differential stain used to penetrate waxy cell walls
family
taxonomical grouping of similar genera of organisms
Kingdom
taxonomical grouping of similar phyla of organisms
Order
taxonomical grouping of similar families of organisms
Phage typing
method of classifying microorganisms in which unknown bacteria are identified by observing plaques
compound microscope
microscope using a series of lenses of magnification
Fluorescent microscope
type of light microscope that uses an ultraviolet light source to fluoresce objects
confocal microscope
type of light microscope that uses ultraviolet lasers to illuminate fluorescent chemicals in a single plane of the specimen
plaque
the clear region within the bacterial lawn where growth is inhibited by bacteriophages
simple microscope
microscope containing a single magnifying lens
bacteriophage
virus that infects and usually destroys bacterial cells
primary stain
colors all cells
smear
the thin film of organisms on the slide
Class
taxonomical grouping of similar orders of organisms
Resolution
the ability to distinguish between objects that are close together
mordant
a substance that binds to a dye and makes it less soluble
Wavelength
the distance between two corresponding points of a wave
Species
taxonomic category of organisms that can successfully interbreed
Genus
taxonomical grouping of similar species of organisms
Magnification
the apparent increase in size of an object viewed via microscopy
decolorizer
a solution that washes the primary stain away
Which of the following is one-billionth of a meter?
a. a millimeter
b. a centimeter
c. a nanometer
d. a micrometer
c
A thin film of microorganisms on a slide is called a ______.
smear
Taxonomy consists of all of the following activities EXCEPT
a. classification
b. staining
c. identification
d. nomenclature
b
Put the following taxonomic groups in order from broadest to most specific.
phylum, order, family, genus
Plaques are associated with which of the following methods of laboratory identification of microorganisms?
a. serological tests
b. phage typing
c. nucleic acid analysis
d. biochemical tests
b
Staining is an important way to improve which of the following aspects of microscopy?
a. resolution and contrast
b. magnification and resolution
c. contrast and magnification
d. numerical aperture and contrast
a
What is an example of a negative stain?
a capsule stain
If you wanted to determine if a microorganism fermented a particular carbohydrate, what kind of tests would you use?
biochemical tests
In a Linnaean taxonomic scheme, closely related genera are placed in a larger grouping called the
family
The limit of useful magnification for a light microscope is
2000x
What is the underlying rationale for how phage typing works?
Phages bind to only certain types of bacterial cells.
Carl Woese proposed three domains, based on what characteristic of cells?
ribosomal RNA sequences
Which unit of measurement is most likely to be used to describe a virus?
nanometer