43 terms

18 Classification

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common names can be confusing because they vary by:
dichotomous key
a tool used to identify an organism
Carolus Linnaeus
who developed binomial nomenclature
binomial nomenclature
a classification system in which each species is given a two part name
italics, first word capital, second lowercased
scientific names are written in . . .
genus
a group of closely related species
a trait of the organism or its habitat
The second word of binomial nomenclature is the species of the organism which represents . . .
systematics
the study of the diversity of life and the evolutionary relationship
taxa
A group into which organisms are classified
species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain
linnaeus' system included 8 taxa:
family
a group of similar genuses
order
a group of similar families
class
a group of similar orders
phylum
s group of similar classes
kingdom
a group of similar phyla
difference and similarities
Linnaeus grouped organisms bases on ______ and ______
how they are evolutionarily related to each other
today, scientist group organisms bases on . . .
phylogeny
the study of evolutionary relationships among both extinct and living organisms
cladogram
a diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species
how evolutionary lineages branched off from common ancestors
a cladogram connectes organisms by showing . . .
clade
a branch of a cladogram that includes an ancestor and all its descendants
node (benching point)
_____ represents a speciation event, shared a common ancestor
Derived character
a trait that appears in recent parts of a cladogram, but not in its older members.
Lost
Derived characters can be ___
evolutionary relationships
organisms share genes that can be used to determine _________ ________.
plantae
green organisms that did not move and got energy from the sun.
Animalia
organisms that moved and got energy from food.
protista, plantae
1. plantae was spilt into
monera, protista
2. protista was split into
fungi, plantae
3. plantae was split into
eubacteria, archaebacteria
4. monera was split into
domain
a group of similar kingdoms
bacteria, archaea, eukarya
3 domains
bacteria
a domain that includes the kingdom eubacteria
Bacteria
are unicellular, are prokaryotic, have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
archaea
a domain that includes the kingdom archaebacteria
archaea
are unicellular, are prokaryotic, have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan, live in extreme environments
Eukarya
a domain that includes the kingdoms: protista, fungi, plantar, and animalia
nuclei
eukarya have . . .
Protista
.unicellular, autotrophs or heterotrophs
fungi
are unicellular or multicellular, are heterotrophs, have cell walls that contain chitin, feed on dead organic matter, secrete digestive enzymes into their food the enzymes break down the food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed
plantae
are unicellular or multicellular, are autotrophs, have cell walls that contain cellulose, are nonmobile
animalia
are multicellular, are heterotrophs, do not have cell walls, are mobile
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