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7th Grade ISTEP Math Terms
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (70)
compatible numbers
numbers that are easy to compute mentally
integers
the set of positive whole number, their opposites, and zero
absolute value
a number's distance from 0 on a number line
additive inverses
two numbers whose sum is 0
order of operations
PEMDAS
mean
average; which is the sum of the data divided by the number of data items
outlier
a data item that is much higher or lower than the other items in a set of data
median
middle number; the middle value when the data are arranged in numerical order
mode
most occuring; the item that occurs with the greatest frequency
range
the difference between the greatest and the least values
exponent
tells how many times a number, or base, is used as a factor
base
used as a factor
power
a number that can be expressed using an exponent
composite number
a whole number that has more than two factors
prime number
a whole number with exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself
prime factorization
writing a composite number as the product of its prime factors
improper fraction
a fraction that has a numerator that is greater than or equal to its denominator
mixed number
the sum of a whole number and a fraction
terminating decimal
a decimal that stops, or terminates
repeating decimal
if the same block or digits in a decimal repeats without end
rational number
a number that can be written as a quotient of two integers, where the divisor is not 0
scientific notation
written as the product of two factors, one greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10, and the other a power of 10
reciprocals
two numbers are reciprocals if their product is 1
variable
a symbol that represents one or more numbers
algebraic expression
a mathematical phrase with at least one variable
equation
a mathematical sentence with an equal sign
inverse operations
operations that undo each other, to get the variable alone
inequality
a mathematical sentence that contains one of the signs
ratio
a comparison of two quantities by division
rate
a ratio that compare two quantities measured in different units
unit rate
the rate for one unit of a given quantity
unit cost
a unit rate that gives the cost per unit
proportion
an equation stating that two ratios are equal
scale
the ratio that compare a length in a drawing or model to the corresponding length in the actual object
commision
a percent of the amount of your sales
percent of change
the percent a quantity increases or decreases from its original amount
markup
the difference between the selling price and the store's cost of an item
discount
the difference between the original price and the sale price of an item
point
a location; has no size; named by a capital letter
line
a series of points that extend in opposite directions without end
ray
a part of a line with one endpoint and all the points of the line on one side of the endpoint
segment
part of a line with two endpoints and all points in between
intersecting lines
have exactly one point in common
parallel lines
never intersect
skew lines
neither parallel nor intersecting
angle
a figure formed by two rays with a common endpoint
vertex
the point of intersection of two sides of an angle or figure
complementary
the sum of the measures of two angles is 90 degrees
supplementary
the sum of the measures of two angles is 180 degrees
adjacent angles
share a vertex and a side but have no interior points in common; angles side-by-side
vertical angles
formed by two intersecting lines and are opposite each other
congruent angles
angles with equal measures
scalene triangle
no congruent sides
isosceles triangle
at least two congruent sides
equilateral triangle
three congruent sides
radius
a segment that connects the center of a circle to the circle
diameter
a segment that passes through the center of a circle and has both endpoints on the circle
central angle
an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle
chord
a segment that has both endpoints on the circle
arc
part of the outside of a circle
circumference
the distance around a circle
perfect square
a number that is the square of an integer
square root
the inverse of squaring a number
irrational number
a number that cannot be written as a ratio of two integers
net
a two-dimensional pattern that you can fold to form a three-dimensional figure
surface area
the sum of the areas of its faces
volume
the number of cubic units needed to fill the space inside the figure
experimental probability
probability based on experimental data or observations
compound event
consists of two or more events
permutation
an arrangement of items in a particular order
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