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39 terms

pharmacology nclex review antibiotics

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aminoglycosides
gentamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tobimycin
aminoglycosides
inhibit synthesis of gram-negative bacteria
aminoglycosides
otoxicity, nephrotoxicity, n/v/d
aminoglycosides
check hearing, check renal fx, 7-10 days, FLUIDS!
cephalosporins
ceclor (cefaclor), ancef (cephazolin), keflex (cephalexin), rocephin (ceftriaxone), mefoxin (cefoxitin)
cephalosporins
inhibit synthesis of bacterial cell wall
cephalosporins
bone marrow depression, superinfections, rash
cephalosporins
***take with food - GI upset***, cross allergy with penicillin, avoid alcohol, obtain c&s
floroquinolones
cipro (ciprofloxin)
floroquinolones
interferes with DNA replication in gram-negative bacteria
floroquinolones
e. coli, psuedomonas, s. aureus, anthrax
floroquinolones
diarrhea, decreases WBC, hct, elevated AST/ALT, elevated alk phos
floroquinolones
C&S, FLUIDS, 1 hr ac or 2 hr pc, not with antacids or iron
macrolide
erythromycin, cleomycin (clindamycin) - different mycin!
macrolide
binds to cell membrane and changes protein fx
macrolide
acute infections, acne, URI
macrolide
diarrhea, confusion, hepatoxicity, superinfection, increases effectiveness of coumadin
macrolide
1 hr ac or 2-3 hr pc, monitor LFT, take with water- not juice
penicillins
amoxicil (amoxicillin), ampicillin, augmentin (amox/clavunalnate) -"-cillin"
penicillins
inhibit cell wall synthesis
penicillins
moderate to severe infection, lymes
penicillins
stomatitis (entire GI), allergy, renal/hepatic dmage
penicillins
check for hypersensitivity (multiple exposures), 1-2 hr ac or 2-3 pc, cross allergy with cephalosporin, liver/kidney function
sulfonamides
gantrisin (acetyl sulfisoxasole), bactrim (cotrimoxazole), azulfinide (sulfasalazine)
sulfonamides
antagonize essential components of folic acid synthesis
sulfonamides
ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, otitis media, UTIs
sulfonamides
peripheral neuropathy, crystalluria, photosensitivity, GI upset, stomatitis
sulfonamides
***take with food***, encourage fluids, good mouth care
tetracyclines
inhibit protein synthesis
tetracyclines
vibramtxin (doxycycline), panmycin (tetracycline)
tetracyclines
infections, acne, prophylaxis for opthalmia neonatorum
tetracyclines
discolors primary teeth, glossitis, rash, phototoxic
tetracyclines
1-2 r ac, 2-3 hr pc, not with antacids/milk/iron, sunblock - avoid sun, note expiration date (toxic), monitor renal function
furadantin
nitrofuran
furadantin
anti-infective, UTI specific
furadantin
asthma attack, give with cranberry juice, monitor pulmonary status (risk for asthma attack)
pyridium
phenoazopyridine
pyridium
urinary tract analgesic, UTI
pyridium
turns urine orange, headache, vertigo